Illness Perceptions Across Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Panic Disorder Patients
- 61 Downloads
We investigated whether panic disorder (PD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients differ in the perception of their illnesses and whether these differences can be ascribed to levels of anxiety sensitivity. We performed a cross-sectional study comparing responses from 36 PD patients, 38 OCD, and 34 SAD patients in the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Mental Health (IPQ-MH). A MANCOVA model with the diagnostic group as the fixed factor, the IPQ-MH items as dependent variables, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R) score as a covariate, was created. Significant differences were observed between the groups with respect to illness perception. PD patients showed significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity than other groups. However, after controlling for anxiety sensitivity as a covariate, patients with PD had significant lower scores in “personal control” and “treatment control” than patients with SAD. OCD patients did not differ significantly from both groups. PD, OCD, and SAD patients have both common and different perceptions regarding their illnesses. Differences between PD and SAD are related to controllability of symptoms, but seem not to be mediated by anxiety sensitivity. Future studies should investigate whether illness perceptions in OCD and anxiety disorders have therapeutic implications.
KeywordsAnxiety disorders Obsessive-compulsive disorder Social anxiety disorder Panic disorder Illness perception Observational descriptive study
We are indebted to our volunteers for participation in this study.
This work was supported by the “Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) under Grants E-26/201.305/2014 & E-26/010.001411/2015; and “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico” (CNPq)] under grant 308237/2014-5.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alkozei, A., Creswell, C., Cooper, P. J., & Allen, J. J. (2015). Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.056.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asselmann, E., Stender, J., Grabe, H. J., Konig, J., Schmidt, C. O., Hamm, A. O., & Pane-Farre, C. A. (2018). Assessing the interplay of childhood adversities with more recent stressful life events and conditions in predicting panic pathology among adults from the general population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, 715–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bentley, K. H., Gallagher, M. W., Boswell, J. F., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., Woods, S. W., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). The interactive contributions of perceived control and anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: a triple vulnerabilities perspective. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(1), 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9311-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calkins, A. W., Otto, M. W., Cohen, L. S., Soares, C. N., Vitonis, A. F., Hearon, B. A., & Harlow, B. L. (2009). Psychosocial predictors of the onset of anxiety disorders in women: results from a prospective 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(8), 1165–1169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.07.022.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chan, R. C. H., & Mak, W. W. S. (2016). Common sense model of mental illness: Understanding the impact of cognitive and emotional representations of mental illness on recovery through the mediation of self-stigma. Psychiatry Research, 246, 16–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.09.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, J. N., Potter, C. M., Drabick, D. A. G., Blanco, C., Schneier, F. R., Liebowitz, M. R., & Heimberg, R. G. (2015). Clinical presentation and pharmacotherapy response in social anxiety disorder: the effect of etiological beliefs. Psychiatry Research, 228(1), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.014.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernandez de la Cruz, L., Kolvenbach, S., Vidal-Ribas, P., Jassi, A., Llorens, M., Patel, N., . . . Mataix-Cols, D. (2016). Illness perception, help-seeking attitudes, and knowledge related to obsessive-compulsive disorder across different ethnic groups: a community survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(3), 455–464. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-015-1144-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fontenelle, L. F., Domingues, A. M., Souza, W. F., Mendlowicz, M. V., de Menezes, G. B., Figueira, I. L., & Versiani, M. (2007). History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 78(3), 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-007-9043-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Garety, P., Weinman, J., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., . . . Bebbington, P. (2013). Patients’ beliefs about the causes, persistence and control of psychotic experiences predict take-up of effective cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 43(2), 269–277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291712001225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lam, D. C., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2007). An experimental investigation of the impact of biological and psychological causal explanations on anxious and depressed patients’ perception of a person with panic disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(2), 405–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laposa, J. M., Collimore, K. C., Hawley, L. L., & Rector, N. A. (2015). Distress tolerance in OCD and anxiety disorders, and its relationship with anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 33, 8–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Purse, J. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats.Google Scholar
- Manfro, G. G., Otto, M. W., McArdle, E. T., Worthington 3rd, J. J., Rosenbaum, J. F., & Pollack, M. H. (1996). Relationship of antecedent stressful life events to childhood and family history of anxiety and the course of panic disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 41(2), 135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moitra, E., Dyck, I., Beard, C., Bjornsson, A. S., Sibrava, N. J., Weisberg, R. B., & Keller, M. B. (2011). Impact of stressful life events on the course of panic disorder in adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 134(1–3), 373–376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.05.029.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stahl, S. M. (1988). Basal ganglia neuropharmacology and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the obsessive-compulsive disorder hypothesis of basal ganglia dysfunction. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24(3), 370–374.Google Scholar