Advertisement

Sleep, Work Stress and Headache in Printing Business: An Actigraphy Study

  • Maria U. Kottwitz
  • Christin Gerhardt
  • Sabrina Schmied
  • Achim ElferingEmail author
Original Article
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Technological change, economic pressure and the need for concentration increase work stress in the printing business. It is well known that stress in the workplace is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, such as headaches and concentration problems. Accordingly, daily recovery—especially restful and healthy sleep—is essential for human functioning. This study tested whether the quality of the previous night’s sleep predicts headaches and concentration problems independent of current-day time pressure, work interruptions and concentration requirements.

Methods

Twenty-seven out of 28 printing plant employees contributed daily data over five consecutive workdays. Self-reported data on working conditions and cognitive functions and actigraphy-based indicators of sleep quality were subjected to multi-level analysis.

Results

Multilevel regression analysis of 125 days confirmed that longer sleep-onset latency, more fragmented sleep and lower sleep efficiency were antecedents of headache intensity the following day. Headaches were also predicted by the current work interruptions. Concentration problems were predicted by the previous night’s sleep latency and the current day’s concentration requirements.

Conclusion

Poor recovery in the sense of low sleep quality may impair cognitive function beyond the effects of the current-day’s work stress. Work redesign and person-oriented training should be used to promote sleep and cognitive function in printers.

Keywords

Headache Sleep actigraphy Time pressure Work interruptions Concentration requirements 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical approval

The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and the code of the Swiss Association of Psychology. The ethical committee of the responsible university faculty has approved the study proposal (Proposal Nr. 2010-08-00003).

References

  1. 1.
    Bælum J, Andersen I, Mølhave L. Acute and subacute symptoms among workers in the printing industry. Occup Environ Med. 1982;39:70–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stovner L, Hagen K, Jensen R, Katsarava Z, Lipton RB, Scher AI, et al. The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pellegrino ABW, Davis-Martin RE, Houle TT, Turner DP, Smitherman TA. Perceived triggers of primary headache disorders: a meta-analysis. Cephalalgia. 2017;38:1188–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Sonnentag S, Casper A, Pinck AS. Job stress and sleep. In: Barling J, Barnes CM, Carleton E, Wagner DT, editors. Work and sleep: research insights for the workplace. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2016. p. 77–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cropley M, Dijk DJ, Stanley N. Job strain, work rumination and sleep in school teachers. Eur J Work Organ Psychol. 2006;15:181–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kottwitz MU, Rolli Salathé C, Buser C, Elfering A. Emotion work and musculoskeletal pain in supermarket cashiers: a test of a sleep-mediation model. Scand J Work Organ Psychol. 2017;2:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fortier-Brochu É, Beaulieu-Bonneau S, Ivers H, Morin CM. Insomnia and daytime cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pereira D, Gerhardt C, Kottwitz MU, Elfering A. Occupational sleep medicine: role of social stressors. In: Pandi-Perumal SR, Narasimhan M, Kramer M, editors. Sleep and psychosomatic medicine. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 57–84.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Åkerstedt T, Hallvig D, Kecklund G. Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers. J Sleep Res. 2017;26:559–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sadeh A. The role and validity of actigraphy in sleep medicine: an update. Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15:259–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Germain A, Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ. Preliminary validation of new device for studying sleep. SLEEP Meeting: Salt Lake City; 2006. p. A351.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Littner M, Kushida CA, Anderson WM, Bailey D, Berry RB, Davila DG, Hirshkowitz M, Kapen S, Kramer M, Loube D. Practice parameters for the role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms: an update for 2002. Sleep. 2003;26:337–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sadeh A, Keinan G, Daon K. Effects of stress on sleep: the moderating role of coping style. Health Psychol. 2004;23:542–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Semmer NK, Zapf D, Dunckel H. Assessing stress at work: a framework and an instrument. In: Svane O, Johansen C, editors. Work and health: scientific basis of progress in the working environment. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 1995. p. 105–13.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin AG, McDermott AM, Sadosky AB, Petrie CD, Martin S. Psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with fibromyalgia. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mohr G. Die Erfassung psychischer Befindensbeeinträchtigungen bei Industriearbeitern [Assessment of strain in industrial workers]. Frankfurt: Lang; 1986.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kudielka BM, Von Känel R, Gander M-L, Fischer JE. Effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and sleep in a working population. Work Stress. 2004;18:167–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maas CJ, Hox JJ. Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology. 2005;1:86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wonnacott TH, Wonnacott RJ. Statistics for business and economics. New York: Wiley; 1984.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sjösten N, Nabi H, Westerlund H, Singh-Manoux A, Dartigues J-F, Goldberg M, Zins M, Oksanen T, Salo P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Influence of retirement and work stress on headache prevalence: a longitudinal modelling study from the GAZEL Cohort Study. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:696–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Engstrøm M, Hagen K, Bjørk M, Stovner L, Stjern M, Sand T. Sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in tension-type headache: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study. Cephalalgia. 2014;34:455–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Houle TT, Butschek RA, Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Rains JC, Penzien DB. Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers. Pain. 2012;153:2432–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Park J-W, Chu MK, Kim J-M, Park S-G, Cho S-J. Analysis of trigger factors in episodic migraineurs using a smartphone headache diary applications. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0149577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kikuchi H, Yoshiuchi K, Ando T, Yamamoto Y. Influence of psychological factors on acute exacerbation of tension-type headache: investigation by ecological momentary assessment. Psychosom Res. 2015;79:239–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zijlstra FRH, Cropley M, Rydstedt LW. From recovery to regulation: an attempt to reconceptualize ‘recovery from work’. Stress Health. 2014;30:244–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Igic I, Keller AC, Elfering A, Tschan F, Kälin W, Semmer NK. Ten-year trajectories of stressors and resources at work: cumulative and chronic effects on health and well-being. J Appl Psychol. 2017;102:1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schiller H, Lekander M, Rajaleid K, Hellgren C, Åkerstedt T, Barck-Holst P, Kecklund G. The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress—a group randomized intervention study using diary data. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017;43:109–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kubo T, Takahashi M, Sato T, Sasaki T, Oka T, Iwasaki K. Weekend sleep intervention for workers with habitually short sleep periods. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011;37:418–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thiart H, Lehr D, Ebert DD, Berking M, Riper H. Log in and breathe out: internet-based recovery training for sleepless employees with work-related strain–results of a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2015;41:164–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nakada Y, Sugimoto A, Kadotani H, Yamada N. Verification of effect of sleep health education program in workplace: a quasi-randomized controlled trial. Ind Health. 2018;56:20–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Andersen LL, Mortensen OS, Zebis MK, Jensen RH, Poulsen OM. Effect of brief daily exercise on headache among adults—secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011;37:547–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smith B, Shatté A, Perlman A, Siers M, Lynch WD. Improvements in resilience, stress, and somatic symptoms following online resilience training: a dose–response effect. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marcus DA, Ready DM. The dos and don’ts of headache diaries. Discussing migraine with your patients. New York: Springer; 2017. p. 71–82.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wålinder R, Gunnarsson K, Runeson R, Smedje G. Physiological and psychological stress reactions in relation to classroom noise. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2007;33:260–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Enders CK, Tofighi D. Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue. Psychol Meth. 2007;12:121–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hofmann DA, Gavin MB. Centering decisions in Hierarchical Linear Models: implications for research in organizations. J Manag. 1998;24:623–41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria U. Kottwitz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christin Gerhardt
    • 2
  • Sabrina Schmied
    • 2
  • Achim Elfering
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of MannheimMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.National Centre of Competence in Research, Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, CISAGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations