Non-action Video Game Training Ameliorates Cognitive Decline Associated with Sleep Disturbance
- 109 Downloads
Sleep disturbance is quite prevalent among students which leads to deleterious consequences on cognitive behavior. Non-action video game training has been shown to improve many aspects of higher order mental functions; therefore, we investigated the effect of same on sleep quality and cognitive functions in sleep-disturbed university students.
The study was a randomized controlled type where participants (n = 30) were assigned into two groups: control and experimental. The subjects in the experimental group completed 4 weeks of computerized non-action video game training. Pre- and post-training measures were taken for sleep quality using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Cognitive functions were tested using PennCNP, computerized neuropsychological battery. Electrophysiological correlates of cognition were evaluated by P300 event-related potential using auditory oddball paradigm.
We found significant decrease in both PSQI and ESS scores in the experimental group as compared to the control group, indicating improvement in sleep. The scores for reaction time, visual memory, and logical reasoning showed improvement in video game learners as compared to the control group. The P300 data showed a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude with video game training in sleep-disturbed students indicating improvement in cognition. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the increase in cognitive function was associated with gains in sleep quality.
The present study showed that 4 weeks of non-action video game training improved sleep quality and cognitive functions in sleep-disturbed university students.
KeywordsVideo game Sleep Cognition P300 PSQI
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of University of Pennsylvania, for giving us the access to use their cognitive test battery, PennCNP. We thank D. J. Buysse and M. W. Johns for giving us the permission to use their copyright questionnaires. Finally, we thank the Neurophysiology Lab, Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences (CPRS), Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), India for their ongoing hard work and support.
AA takes full responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to finished article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
No competing financial interests exist.
- 2.Sweileh WM, Ali IA, Sawalha AF, Abu-Taha AS, Sa’ed HZ, Al-Jabi SW. Sleep habits and sleep problems among Palestinian students. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Mental Health. 2011;5(1):25.Google Scholar
- 7.Park DC. The basic mechanisms accounting for age-related decline in cognitive function. In: Cognitive aging: a primer, vol. 11(1);2000. p.3–19.Google Scholar
- 8.Haimov I, Shatil E. Cognitive training improves sleep quality and cognitive function among older adults with insomnia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(4):61390.Google Scholar
- 11.Green CS, Bavelier D. The cognitive neuroscience of video games. In: Digital media: transformations in human communication. 2006. p. 211–23.Google Scholar
- 24.Sternberg DA, Ballard K, Hardy JL, Katz B, Doraiswamy PM, Scanlon M. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;20(7):292.Google Scholar
- 30.Raouafi S, Etindele Sosso FA. Cyberpsychology: video games as a perspective for cognitive training. Ment Health Addict Res. 2017;2(3):1–2.Google Scholar
- 31.Ballesteros S, Prieto A, Mayas J, Toril P, Pita C, Ponce de León L, Reales JM, Waterworth J. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014;14(6):277.Google Scholar
- 33.Boot WR, Kramer AF, Simons DJ, Fabiani M, Gratton G. The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;129(3):387–98.Google Scholar