Structural, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of PZT-based ceramics without excess lead oxide
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A number of previous research have been done on the excess PbO to improve the material properties of PZT-based ceramics. This study takes a step further by studying the consequences of controlled addition of PbO on the structural, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ceramics (PZT-based ceramics). In order to draw qualitative comparisons between their material properties, pure or undoped PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] and doped PZTs (PSZT [Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3], PLZT [Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3], and PLSZT [Pb0.93La0.02Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3]) were studied. The compositions were prepared through high-energy ball milling in a way to avoid calcination using controlled addition of PbO. After milling, pellets were formed from the mixtures, which were then sintered at 1150 °C. The phase analysis of the sintered mixtures using XRD technique revealed the formation of a single perovskite phase in all the developed ceramics. All the undoped and doped ceramics have relative density of > 90%. La-doped PZT had the best piezoelectric properties with d33 of 372 pC/N and kp of 0.510; in addition, better dielectric properties, i.e., ɛr of 1269 and tan δ of 0.050, were found. This good performance of the La-doped PZT is related to its high density (7.6 g/cm3) and low porosity (0.154), which was clearly observed in its microstructure.
KeywordsPZT Piezoelectric La-doped PZT Sr-doped PZT Dielectric
The authors acknowledge the School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, for providing piezoelectric testing facilities.
This work is financially supported under the university research grant (Universiti Sains Malaysia RUI 1001/PBAHAN/814184).
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