In vivo studies of titanium implant surface treatment by sandblasted, acid-etched and further anchored with ceramic of tetracalcium phosphate on osseointegration
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The objective was to investigate and compare the osseointegrative responses of sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA) and calcium phosphate (CaP) implants in vivo. The CaP implant was prepared by control group of SLA surface modification and anchoring with sintering ceramic of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) to form a mechanical interlocking film. Customized screw Ti implants (size Ø 2.0 mm × 6 mm length) were utilized to histologically examine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) after implantation. The implant stability quotient scales in the postoperative implants within femurs were recorded. Subsequently, the postoperative implants were scanned using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), and the topography was examined microscopically to analyze the BIC conditions. The SLA and CaP implant groups showed increased bone mineral density (g/cm3) and BIC (%). Compared with the SLA implant, the CaP implant with TTCP improved the early osteointegration of the BIC at 1-month post-operation and demonstrated quantitative effects on the BIC at 1-month post-operation. SLA and CaP implants all showed good osseointegration through micro-CT analysis (1–6 months). The current findings suggest the CaP anchoring Ti surface demonstrated improvement in early stages of osseointegration and thus shows the potential clinical benefits of TTCP anchoring on Ti surfaces in bone-level solutions.
KeywordsTitanium Calcium phosphate Surface modification Sandblasted and acid etched (SLA) Histological
The authors acknowledge and appreciate the assistance of Ms. Cian-Hua Liou, Ms. Ya-Yuan Chang, and Present Company Tuo-Huo Chang who customized and free provided the screw implants by Alliance Global Technology Co. in this research. The authors also thank the Precision Instrument Support Center of Feng Chia University, which provided the fabrication and measurement facilities. The assistance of the participants in this research is also acknowledged.
This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan [grant numbers MOST 103-2221-E-035-099- and 105-2221-E-035-021-MY3].
Compliance with ethical standards
The animal testing procedures employed in this study were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Kaohsiung Medical University. National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals (NIH Publication #85-23 Rev. 1985) were observed.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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