Advertisement

Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 633–642 | Cite as

Exposure, Impacts, and Responses to Heat Stress: A Comparison Between Rural and Peri-urban Poor Population

  • Muhammad Awais UmarEmail author
  • Fahad Saeed
  • Kashif Majeed Salik
  • Abid Qaiyum Suleri
Original Article

Abstract

This study is an attempt to understand the differences in exposure, impacts, and responses to heat stress between peri-urban and rural population. Furthermore, it explores how crucial a role heat stress plays in impacting migration decisions. Based on the analysis of an ensemble of regional climate models, it is found that the studied region is projected to undergo an increase in the frequency of heat waves under RCP 8.5 scenario. Afterwards, a randomly selected household survey was carried out at rural as well as peri-urban areas of Faisalabad. At both areas, the available economic opportunities were analyzed to understand how economic well-being and type of occupation are associated with thermal discomfort. It was found that people involved in outdoor activities are highly vulnerable to heat stress. Poverty is one of the prime barriers to adapt to heat stress. People’s livelihoods, in terms of labor productivity and decline in agriculture production, are reported to be affected by the heat stress. This study found that peri-urban respondents came from the rural areas of the district and other cities across the providence to improve their level of income and reduce their vulnerabilities but due to the low level of education and skills, they have only been able to improve their livelihoods to a limited extent. As a result, there is very little improvement in their standard of living as well as their thermal discomfort/exposure to heat stress.

Keywords

Migration Climate change Heat stress Poverty 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is based on the Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) project, funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) through the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest Statement

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

41748_2018_70_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (53 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (JPEG 52 kb) S 1: Indoor temperature distribution

References

  1. ADB (2013) The urbanization–poverty–inequality triangle in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank technical assistance reportGoogle Scholar
  2. Adhikari U, Nejadhashemi AP, Woznicki SA (2015) Climate change and eastern Africa: a review of impact on major crops. Food Energy Secur 4:110–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batool Z, Abbasi SRS, Zafar MI, Hameed S (2008) Evaluation of risk factors and prevalence of depressive disorders among rural females in district Faisalabad. J Anim Plant Sci 18(2–3):89–93Google Scholar
  4. De Haas H (2010) Migration and development: a theoretical perspective. Int Migr Rev 44(1):227–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Depietri Y, Welle T, Renaud FG (2013) Social vulnerability assessment of the Cologne urban area (Germany) to heat waves: links to ecosystem services. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 6:98–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farooq M, Mateen A, Cheema MA (2005) Determinants of migration in Punjab Pakistan: a case study of Faisalabad metropolitan. J Agric Soc Sci 1(3):280–282Google Scholar
  7. Franck U, Krüger M, Schwarz N, Grossmann K, Röder S, Schlink U (2013) Heat stress in urban areas: indoor and outdoor temperatures in different urban structure types and subjectively reported well-being during a heat wave in the city of Leipzig. Meteorol Z 22:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gao C, Kuklane K, Östergren PO, Kjellstrom T (2018) Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change. Int J Biometeorol 62(3):359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garbarino S, Holland J (2009) Quantitative and qualitative methods in impact evaluation and measuring results. Issue paper; Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC), UKGoogle Scholar
  10. Garg T, Jagnani M, Taraz V (2017) Effects of heat stress on physiology and livelihoods: implications for human capital accumulation, Working paperGoogle Scholar
  11. GoP (2011) District level employment trends 2009–2010. Ministry of Finance Statistic Division Government of Pakistan, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  12. GoP (2014) Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013–14. Ministry of Finance Statistic Division, Government of Pakistan, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  13. Hajizadeh R, Golbabaei F, Monazzam M, Farhang-Dehghan S, Ezadi-Navan E (2015) Productivity loss from occupational exposure to heat stress: a case study in Brick Workshops/Qom-Iran. Int J Occup Hyg 6:143–148Google Scholar
  14. Hatcher C (2017) Rural urban linkages: in the context of sustainable development and environmental protection. Global Land Outlook, working paperGoogle Scholar
  15. Hope Sr KR (2009) Climate change and poverty in Africa. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 16:451–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hussain I (2014) ‘Urbanization in Pakistan’ Keynote address delivered at South Asia Cities conference and Pakistan Urban Forum, 9 Jan 2014Google Scholar
  17. Jacob D, Elizalde A, Haensler A, Hagemann S, Kumar P, Podzun R, Rechid R, Remedio AR, Saeed F, Sieck K, Teichmann C, Wilhelm C (2012) Assessing the transferability of the regional climate model REMO to different coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) regions. Atmosphere.  https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos3010181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan M, Akhtar S, Mehmood HZ, Muhmood K (2013) Analysing skills education and wages in Faisalabad: implications for labour market. Procedia Econ Finance 5:423–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan AW, Moshammer HM, Kundi M (2015) Industrial hygiene occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry. BMJ Open 5:007266Google Scholar
  20. Kjellstrom T (2016) Impact of climate conditions on occupational health and related economic losses: a new feature of global and urban health in the context of climate change. Asia Pac J Public Health 28:28S–37SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kjellstrom T, Kovats RS, Lloyd SJ, Holt T, Tol RS (2009) The direct impact of climate change on regional labor productivity. Arch Environ Occup Health 64:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kjellstrom T, Briggs D, Freyberg C, Lemke B, Otto M, Hyatt O (2016) Heat human performance and occupational health: a key issue for the assessment of global climate change impacts. Annu Rev Public Health 37:97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kreft S, Eckstein D, Melchior I (2016) Global climate risk index 2017: who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2015 and 1996 to 2015. Germanwatch Nord-Süd Initiative eV, BonnGoogle Scholar
  24. Kugelman M (ed) (2014) Pakistan’s runaway urbanization: What can be done?. Wilson Center, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewin AC, Stier H (2003) Immigration, state support, and the economic well-being of the elderly in Israel. Res Aging 25(3):195–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lin RT, Chan CC (2009) Effects of heat on workers’ health and productivity in Taiwan. Glob Health Action 2:2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lundgren K, Kuklane K, Gao C, Holmer I (2013) Effects of heat stress on working populations when facing climate change. Ind Health 51:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Majid H, Zahir H (2013) Farmer adaptability to climate change: the role of socio economic factors in agricultural productivity. IDRC Working Paper SeriesGoogle Scholar
  29. Mueller V, Gray C, Kosec K (2014) Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan. Nat Climate Change 4:182–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicodemus M, Ness B (2010) Peri-urban development, livelihood change and household income: a case study of peri-urban Nyahururu, Kenya. J Agric Ext Rural Dev 2(5):73–83Google Scholar
  31. Opitz-Stapleton S, Sabbag L, Hawley K, Tran P, Hoang L, Nguyen PH (2016) Heat index trends and climate change implications for occupational heat exposure in Da Nang Vietnam. Climate Serv 2:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Park J, Hallegatte S, Bangalore M, Sandhoefner E (2015) Households and heat stress: estimating the distributional consequences of climate change. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7479Google Scholar
  33. Rehman A, Jingdong L, Chandio AA, Hussain I (2017) Livestock production and population census in Pakistan: determining their relationship with agricultural GDP using econometric analysis. Inf Process Agric 4:168–177Google Scholar
  34. Rubin GJ, Bakhshi S, Amlôt R, Fear N, Potts HW, Michie S (2014) The design of a survey questionnaire to measure perceptions and behaviour during an influenza pandemic: the Flu TElephone Survey Template (FluTEST). In: Health Services and Delivery Research, vol 2, no. 41. NIHR Journals Library, Southampton, UKGoogle Scholar
  35. Saeed F, Suleri AQ (2015) Future heat-waves in Pakistan under IPCC’s AR5 climate change scenario. SDPI policy brief #46Google Scholar
  36. Saeed F, Salik KM, Ishfaq S (2016) Climate induced rural-to-urban migration in Pakistan. PRISE Working Paper. http://prise.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Low_Res-Climate-induced-rural-to-urban-migration-in-Pakistan.pdf. Accessed 13 Aug 2018
  37. Saeed F, Almazroui M, Islam N, Khan MS (2017) Intensification of future heat waves in Pakistan: a study using CORDEX regional climate models ensemble. Nat Hazards 87:1635–1647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Salik KM, Qaisrani A, Umar M.A, Ali SM (2017) Migration futures in Asia and Africa: economic opportunities and distributional effects—the case of Pakistan. PRISE Working Paper. http://prise.odi.org/research/migration-futures-in-asia-and-africa-economic-opportunities-and-distributional-effects-the-case-of-pakistan/. Accessed 13 Aug 2018
  39. Scheffran J, Marmer E, Sow P (2012) Migration as a contribution to resilience and innovation in climate adaptation: social networks and co-development in Northwest Africa. Appl Geogr 33:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shah N, Abbas F, Abbas Y, Haider SA, Khan Q, Asghar N, Noor S, Abbas SN, Ali N, Ali A (2015) Assessment of the workplace conditions and health and safety situation in chemical and textile industries of Pakistan. Science 3:862–869Google Scholar
  41. Smith MD, Saywell DL (1998) Basic services in peri-urban areas. AGUA `98 (Agua y sostenibilidad) International conference and seminar, CINARA, University of Cali, Columbia, JuneGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith KR, Woodward A, Campbell-Lendrum D, Chadee DD, Honda Y, Liu Q, Olwoch JM, Revich B, Sauerborn R (2014) Human health: impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits. In: Climate change. pp 709–754Google Scholar
  43. Tacoli C (2009) Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility. Environ Urban 21:513–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Venugopal V, Chinnadurai JS, Lucas RA, Kjellstrom T (2015) Occupational heat stress profiles in selected workplaces in India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. WB (2014) Pakistan: Country snapshot, no. 91629, World Bank, Washington, DC. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/758111507887869177/Pakistan-Country-snapshot. Accessed 13 Aug 2018
  46. Zahid M, Rasul G (2010) Rise in summer heat index over Pakistan. Pak J Meteorol 6:85–89Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Awais Umar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fahad Saeed
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kashif Majeed Salik
    • 1
  • Abid Qaiyum Suleri
    • 1
  1. 1.Sustainable Development Policy InstituteIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Center for Excellence in Climate Change ResearchKing Abdul-Aziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Climate AnalyticsBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations