Removal of Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfapyridine and Carbamazepine, from Simulated Wastewater Using Conventional and Nonconventional Adsorbents
- 3 Downloads
The use of phosphate rock (PR), porcelanite (PC) and granite (GR) as natural locally abundant adsorbents compared with adsorption by granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing pharmaceuticals including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfapyridine (SP) and carbamazepine (CBZ) from simulated wastewater was examined. The removal efficiency of the three pharmaceuticals was found to follow the consequences as: PC ˃ GAC ˃ PR ˃ GR. The uptake efficiency of sulfamethoxazole was 91.51, 86.69, 69.51 and 53.97% onto PC, GAC, PR and GR, respectively, at initial concentration, pH, dosage and temperature of 50 mg/L, 4, 0.5 g/100 mL and 30 °C, respectively. The removal efficiency of sulfapyridine was 84.71, 81.97, 63.25 and 49.71%, respectively. However, for carbamazepine it was 80.46, 79.61, 54.10 and 43.44%, respectively. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) was carried out for PC before and after adsorption to determine the type of functional groups. Carbonyl and hydroxyl functional groups on the surface of PC were the major groups responsible for adsorption process. The effect of pH (5, 7 and 9), agitation speed (50–300 rpm), dosage (0.1–1.4 g/100 mL), contact time (30–360 min), temperature (10–60 °C) and initial concentration (25–100 mg/L) are studied to find out the optimum conditions for removing the selected pharmaceuticals using PC. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic models had been used to fit the experimental data. From which Langmuir and pseudo-second order models were found to be more represented to the experiments with high correlation coefficient for the three pharmaceuticals.
The demand for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has nearly paralleled the escalating population.
The prolonged use of PPCPs has led to evident emergence in the environment, creating the potential for adverse consequences to ecosystems and human health.
Current water and wastewater treatment processes, such as advanced oxidation, photolysis, and adsorption have shown some success in the removal of SMX, SP, and CBZ.
KeywordsSMX SP CBZ Adsorption PC GAC
The authors would like to thank Mustansiriyah University (http://www.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq) for their support to the authors during completion of this work.
- Ali AH, Younis S, Lahieb F, Ali Q (2016b) Selecting of an effective adsorbent for treating phosphate contamination. J Eng Sustain Dev 20(5):136–1155Google Scholar
- Anness E, Conoby K (2013) Removal of sulfamethoxazole from water by ion-exchange adsorption, major qualifying project completed in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Science Degree at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MAGoogle Scholar
- Armenante P (1999) Ion exchange [PowerPoint slides]. http://cpe.njit.edu/dlnotes/CHE685. Accessed 25 Feb 2013
- Daughton CG (2004) PPCPs in the environment: future research C beginning with the end always in mind. In: Kümmerer K (ed) Pharmaceuticals in the environment, 2nd edn. Springer, pp 463–495Google Scholar
- Davis ML (2009) Air pollution. In: Masten SJ (ed) Principles of environmental engineering and science, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston, pp 572–573Google Scholar
- De Dardel F (2010) Ion exchange. http://dardel.info/IX/index.html. Accessed 25 Feb 2013
- Droste RL (1997) Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment. Wiley, Technology & EngineeringGoogle Scholar
- Hamadi N, Ahmed A, Ali AH (2014) Removal of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ metals from simulated wastewater in single and competitive system using locally porcelanite. Int J Eng Sci Res Technol 3(7):245–257Google Scholar
- IMS Insitute for Healthcare Informatics (2012) The global use of medicines: outlook through 2016. http://www.imshealth.com/deployedfiles/ims/Global/Content/Insights/IMSInstituteforHealthcareInformatics/GlobalUseofMeds2011/Medicines_Outlook_Through_2016_Report.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2013
- Mohammad H, Ahmad Z, Alireza M, Ramin N, Mahmood A, Mojtaba A (2017b) Adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous systems using thermally sodium organo-bentonite biopolymer composite (TSOBC): response surface methodology, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Desalination Water Treat 85:298–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mohammad H, Mansoureh F, Mahmood A, Mojtaba A, Gordon M (2018) Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water by activated carbon derived from CaCl2-modified Crocus sativus leaves: equilibrium adsorption isotherms, optimization, and influence of anions. Chem Eng Commun 205(7):955–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Niu J, Zhang L, Li Y, Zhao J, Lv S, Xiao K (2012) Effects of environmental factors on sulfamethoxazole photodegradation under simulated sunlight irradiation. J Environ Sci 24:1098–1106Google Scholar
- Stoykova M, Koumanova B, Mörl L (2013) Adsorptive removal of carbamazepine from wastewaters by activated charcoals. J Chem Technol Metall 48(5):469–474Google Scholar
- Sulaymon AH, Abbood DW, Ali AH (2012a) Removal of phenol and lead from synthetic wastewater by adsorption onto granular activated carbon in fixed bed adsorbers: prediction of breakthrough curves. Desalination Water Treat 40(1–3):244–253Google Scholar
- Sulaymon AH, Abbood DW, Ali AH (2012b) Competitive adsorption of phenol and lead from synthetic wastewater onto granular activated carbon. J Environ Sci Eng 5(2011):1389–1399Google Scholar
- Tlaiaa YS (2014) Performance of coagulation/adsorption for removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater, MSc. Thesis, University of AL-Mustansiriya, College of EngineeringGoogle Scholar
- Wu Y, Tang Y, Li L, Liu P, Li X, Chen W, Xue Y (2019) Adsorption of U(VI) ions from aqueous solution using nanogoethite powder. Adsorpt Sci Technol 37(1–2):113–126Google Scholar
- Ying Y, Yan Z, Bin G, Renjie C, Feng W (2017) Removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfapyridine (SPY) from aqueous solutions by biochars derived from anaerobically digested bagasse. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(26):25659–25667Google Scholar