Advertisement

Health Impact of Agricultural Drainage Water for Farmers in the West Nile Delta

  • Tsutomu OkuboEmail author
  • Akinori Iguchi
  • Shuya Tanaka
  • Shota Uchida
  • Tadashi Tagawa
  • Mamoru Oshiki
  • Nobuo Araki
  • Ahmed Tawfik
  • Masanobu Takahashi
  • Kengo Kubota
  • Hideki Harada
  • Shigeki Uemura
Research paper
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

The use of untreated sewage in agriculture is gaining attention as a result of rapid urbanization and increased global water scarcity. However, the incidence of waterborne infections among farmers in such areas is increasing due to the exposure of contaminated sewage. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk and health impact related to waterborne infections in farmers using agricultural drainage wastewater (ADW) for irrigation in the West Nile Delta. A total of nine viruses were detected by quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR in ADW samples collected from the Dishody drain, which was found to be the most polluted branch drain in the region through a water pollution survey. The results of quantitative microbial risk assessment and disability-adjusted life year evaluation indicated that ADW of the Dishody drain is not acceptable for irrigation reuse. A water recirculation system including appropriate sewage treatment technology must be quickly installed to reduce microbial risks for farmers in the West Nile Delta.

Article Highlights

  • QMRA on Egyptian agricultural drains was evaluated.

  • Results of QMRA and DALY evaluation indicated that ADW from the Dishody drain is not acceptable for irrigation reuse.

  • A water recirculation system must be quickly established to reduce microbial risks for farmers in the West Nile Delta.

Keywords

Agricultural drainage wastewater Human pathogenic virus Microfluidic quantitative PCR Quantitative microbial risk assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant no. 15H05339) and the Program for the Strategic Promotion of International Cooperation to Accelerate Innovation in Developing Countries of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).

References

  1. Amr F, Tawfik A, Saavedra O, Elzeir M (2013) Assessment of the performance of a down-flow hanging sponge system for treatment of agricultural drainage water. Desalin Water Treat 52(34–36):1–8Google Scholar
  2. Barker SF, O’Toole J, Sinclair MI, Leder K, Malawaraarachchi M, Hamilton AJ (2013) A probabilistic model of norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of home-produced lettuce in Melbourne, Australia. Water Res 47:1421–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Eftim SE, Hong T, Soller J, Boehm A, Warren I, Ichida A, Nappier SP (2017) Occurrence of norovirus in raw sewage—a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Water Res 111:366–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) FAO database. https://www.fao.org/nr/water/infores_databases_cropwat.html. Accessed 9 Aug 2018
  5. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2004) Carbon sequestration in dryland soils, Italy. http://www.fao.org/3/a-Y5738e.pdf. Accessed 9 Aug 2018
  6. Egypt General Information GEOHIVE https://www.geohive.com/entry/egypt.aspx. Accessed 9 Aug 2018
  7. Ishii S, Kitamura G, Segawa T, Kobayashi A, Miura T, Sano D, Okabe S (2014) Microfluidic quantitative PCR for simultaneous quantification of multiple viruses in environmental water samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:7505–7511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kobayashi N, Oshiki M, Ito T, Segawa T, Hatamoto M, Kato T, Yamaguchi T, Kubota K, Takahashi M, Iguchi A, Tagawa T, Okubo T, Uemura S, Harada H, Motoyama T, Araki N, Sano D (2017) Removal of human pathogenic viruses in a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor treating municipal wastewater and health risk of the use of effluent for agricultural irrigation. Water Res 110:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lewis GD, Metcalf TG (1988) Polyethylene glycol precipitation for recovery of pathogenic viruses, including hepatitis A virus and human rotavirus, from oyster, water, and sediment samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:1983–1988Google Scholar
  10. Mara D, Sleigh A (2010) Estimation of norovirus and Ascaris infection risks to urban farmers in developing countries using wastewater for crop irrigation. J Water Health 8(3):572–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ministry of water resources and irrigation (1999) National water resources plan for Egypt, water quality and pollution control, NWPR Technical Report No. 5, MWRI, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  12. Nagy HM, Salem AAS (2003) Evaluation of drainage water quality for reuse—a case study of the Umoum drain in Egypt. Lowl Technol Int 5(2):27–38Google Scholar
  13. Nocker A, Cheung CY, Camper AK (2006) Comparison of propidium monoazide with ethidium monoazide for differentiation of live vs. dead bacteria by selective removal of DNA from dead cells. J Microbiol Methods 67:310–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Patel MM, Widdowson MA, Glass RI, Akazawa K, Vinje J, Parashar UD (2008) Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 14(8):1224–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Randazzo W, Khezri M, Ollivier J, Le Guyader FS, Rodriguez-Diaz J, Aznar R, Sanchez G (2018) Optimization of PMAxx pretreatment to distinguish between human norovirus with intact and altered capsids in shellfish and sewage samples. J Food Microbiol 266:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Teunis PFM, Moe CL, Liu P, Miller SE, Lindesmith L, Baric RS, Le Pendu J, Calderon RL (2008) Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? J Med Virol 80:1468–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. United Nations (UN), Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2017a) World Population Prospects, The 2017 Revision File POP/1-1: total population by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950–2015, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. United Nations (UN), Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2017b) World Population Prospects, The 2017 Revision File POP/6: population density by regions, subregion and country, annually for 1950–2015, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1989) National primary drinking water regulations. Fed Reg 54(124):27486Google Scholar
  20. Valipour M (2015) Temperature analysis of reference evapotranspiration models. Meteorol Appl 22:385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn. WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  22. World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greaywater. In: Wastewater use in agriculture, vol 2. WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  23. Yasui N, Suwa M, Minamiyama M (2017) Infection risk assessment of reclaimed water by UF membrane treatment process focusing attention on norovirus. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 18(1):270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsutomu Okubo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Akinori Iguchi
    • 2
  • Shuya Tanaka
    • 1
  • Shota Uchida
    • 1
  • Tadashi Tagawa
    • 3
  • Mamoru Oshiki
    • 4
  • Nobuo Araki
    • 4
  • Ahmed Tawfik
    • 5
  • Masanobu Takahashi
    • 6
  • Kengo Kubota
    • 7
  • Hideki Harada
    • 8
  • Shigeki Uemura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of TechnologyKisarazu CollegeKisarazuJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Life ScienceNiigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life SciencesNiigataJapan
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of TechnologyKagawa CollegeTakamatsuJapan
  4. 4.Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of TechnologyNagaoka CollegeNagaokaJapan
  5. 5.Water Pollution Research DepartmentNational Research CenterGizaEgypt
  6. 6.Sewage Works DepartmentNihon Suido Consultants Co., LtdSuitaJapan
  7. 7.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  8. 8.New Industry Creation Hatchery CenterTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations