Advertisement

International Journal of Environmental Research

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 651–659 | Cite as

Remediation of Diesel-Contaminated Soil by Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction

  • Rocio Maceiras
  • Victor Alfonsin
  • Javier Martinez
  • Carlos Martinez Vara de Rey
Research paper
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

Soil contamination by hydrocarbons is an environmental problem and its remediation is necessary. This work presents the effect of ultrasound on solvent extraction of soil contaminated with diesel fuel. For the experiments, the soil was contaminated with diesel (10% wt.). The remediation was carried out by ultrasonic solvent extraction and compared with Soxhlet extraction. The effect of different parameters (time, temperature, soil/solvent ratio and type of solvent) on removal efficiency was examined. With the aim to optimize the ultrasonic extraction, a Box–Behnken design under response surface methodology was used and the proposed model showed a good fit of the experimental data. The obtained results were compared with a conventional solvent extraction (Soxhlet) for both solvents (n-hexane and acetone). Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of soil after remediation treatment was observed on seed germination of Brassica rapa. The obtained results demonstrated that hexane was more effective than acetone in removing hydrocarbons from contaminated soil (80%), and the removal efficiency increased with the soil/solvent ratio (> 1:5) and reaction time (> 90 min). A second-order polynomial model was proposed to predict the removal efficiency of the extraction process.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Soil remediation Hydrocarbons Ultrasonic solvent extraction Soxhlet Phytotoxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Defense University Center and collaboration of Spanish Naval Military Academy.

References

  1. Abed K, Kurji B, Abdul-Majeed B (2015) Extraction and modelling of oil from Eucalyptus camadulensis by organic solvent. J Mater Sci Chem Eng 3:35–42Google Scholar
  2. Adeyinka AA, Dare AA, Popoola DS, Saka HA, Afolabi AO (2014) Experimental investigation of enhanced remediation of contaminated soil using ultrasound effect. Int J Eng Technol 3:322–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Careghini A, Saponaro S, Sezenna E, Daghio M, Franzetti A, Gandolfi I, Bestetti G (2015) Lab-scale tests and numerical simulations for in situ treatment of polluted groundwater. J Hazard Mater 287:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen D, Sharma SK, Mudhoo A (2011) Handbook on applications of ultrasound: sonochemistry for sustainability. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. Chung HI (2007) Treatment of contaminated groundwater in sandy layer under river bank by electrokinetic and ultrasonic technology. Water Sci Technol 55:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Falciglia PP, Vagliasindi FGA (2014) Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by ex situ microwave treatment: technical, energy and economic considerations. Environ Technol 35:2280–2288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Falciglia PP, Urso G, Vagliasindi FGA (2013) Microwave heating remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel. J Soils Sediments 13:1396–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falciglia PP, Maddalena R, Mancuso G, Messina V, Vagliasindi FGA (2016) Lab-scale investigation on remediation of diesel-contaminated aquifer using microwave energy. J Environ Manage 167:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feng D, Aldrich C (2000) Sonochemical treatment of simulated soil contaminated with diesel. Adv Environ Res 4:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feng D, Lorenzen L, Aldrich C, Maré PW (2001) Ex situ diesel contaminated soil washing with mechanical methods. Minerals Eng 14:1093–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferreira SLC, Bruns RE, Ferreira HS, Matos GD, David JM, Brandão GC, da Silva EGP, Portugal LA, dos Reis PS, Souza AS, dos Santos WNL (2007) Box-Behnken design: an alternative for the optimization of analytical methods. Anal Chim Acta 597:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gan Y, Duan Q, Gong W, Tong C, Sun Y, Chu W, Ye A, Miao C, Di Z (2014) A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: a case study with a hydrological model. Environ Modelling Softw 51:269–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hansen CM (1999) Hansen solubility parameters: a user’s handbook. CRC Press, FloridaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jagtap SS, Woo SM, Kim T, Dhiman SS, Kim D, Lee J (2014) Phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil and saccharification of the resulting biomass. Fuel 116:292–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li X, Du Y, Wu G, Li Z, Li H, Sui H (2012) Solvent extraction for heavy crude oil removal from contaminated soils. Chemosphere 88:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Luhach J, Chaudhry S (2012) Effect of diesel fuel contamination on seed germination and growth of four agricultural crops. Univers J Environ Res Technol 2:311–317Google Scholar
  17. Maceiras R (2016) Emerging technologies for soil remediation of hydrocarbons. Pharm Anal Chem 2:1Google Scholar
  18. Maguire JD (1962) Speed of germination—aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigour. Crop Sci 2:176–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Santorum M, Pereira H, de Souza EG, dos Santos D, Boller W, Mauli MM (2013) Comparison of tests for the analysis of vigor and viability in soybean seeds and their relationship to field emergence. Acta Sci Agron 35:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sathish S, Sundareswaran S, Ganesan N (2011) Influence of seed priming on physiological performance of fresh and aged seeds of maize hybrid [COH(M) 5] and it’s parental lines. ARPN J Agri Biol Sci 6:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Scott SJ, Jones RA, Williams WA (1984) Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Sci 24:1192–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shrestha RA, Pham TD, Sillanpää M (2009) Effect of ultrasound on removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from different types of soils. J Hazard Mater 170:871–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Silva A, Delerue-Matos C, Fiúza A (2005) Use of solvent extraction to remediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. J Hazard Mater 124:224–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Son Y, Cha J, Lim M, Ashokkumar M, Khim J (2011) Comparison of ultrasonic and conventional mechanical soil-washing processes for diesel-contaminated sand. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:2400–2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Son Y, Nam S, Ashokkumar M, Khim J (2012) Comparison of energy consumptions between ultrasonic, mechanical, and combined soil washing processes. Ultrason Sonochem 19:395–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Souza RH, Villela FA, Aumonde TZ (2013) Methodologies based on seedling performance for vigor assessment of pumpkin seeds. J Seed Sci 35:374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tadeo JL, Sánchez-Brunete C, Albero B, García-Valcárcel AI (2010) Application of ultrasound-assisted extraction to the determination of contaminants in food and soil samples. J Chromatogr A 1217:2415–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tarazona VJ, Fernandez DM, Vega MM (2005) Regulation of contaminated soils in Spain—a new legal instrument (4 pp). J Soils Sediments 5:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wan C, Du M, Lee D, Yang X, Ma W, Zheng L (2011) Electrokinetic remediation and microbial community shift of beta-cyclodextrin-dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:2019–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu JM, Huang HS, Livengood CD (1995) Development of an ultrasonic process for soil remediation (ANL–ES/PP-80277). USDOE, Washington, DC, United StatesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zeynep E (2012) Ultrasound as a basic and auxiliary process for dye remediation: a review. J Environ Manage 104:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro Universitario de la DefensaEscuela Naval MilitarMarínSpain
  2. 2.Escuela Naval MilitarMarínSpain

Personalised recommendations