Advertisement

Improvement of Carbamazepine Degradation by a Three-Dimensional Electrochemical (3-EC) Process

  • Abolghasem Alighardashi
  • Rasoul Shabani Aghta
  • Homeira Ebrahimzadeh
Research paper
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Removal of carbamazepine (CBZ) was evaluated and studied during the oxidation by the three-dimensional electrochemical process (3-EC) compared to two-dimensional (2-EC) electrochemical process. The pilot tests were performed using two experimental units[one with powder of activated carbon (PAC) as particle electrode and the other without PAC] containing one anode (aluminum, alloy 1050) and one cathode (Al). Different operating parameters, including PAC concentration, current density, initial CBZ concentration, and reaction time were investigated. Both the removal efficiency and current efficiency increased when the current density was 9 mAcm−2, whereas it increased with rising the PAC concentration. The highest value of the removal efficiency (89.8%) was recorded for the optimum current density (9 mAcm−2), the PAC concentration (0.5 gL−1), and 10 min electrolysis time in the 3-EC process. The PAC concentration was the preponderant factor for CBZ removal. In comparison, the highest removal efficiency was 29.8% for the 2-EC process. Scavenger addition method was used to describe the mechanism, and found that superoxides are increased in 3-EC process. On the other hand, adsorption did not play any role in the degradation of CBZ in this study.

Keywords

Three-dimensional electrochemical Powder of activated carbon Carbamazepine Degradation 

Abbreviations

2-EC

Two-dimensional electrochemical

3-EC

Three-dimensional electrochemical

AOPs

Advanced oxidation processes

BDD

Boron-doped diamond

CBZ

Carbamazepine

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

GAC

Granular activated carbon

PAC

Powder of activated carbon

STP

Sewage treatment plant

TOC

Total organic carbon

References

  1. Aminot Y, Le Menach K, Pardon P, Etcheber H, Budzinski H (2016) Inputs and seasonal removal of pharmaceuticals in the estuarine Garonne River. Mar Chem 185:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Backhurst J, Coulson J, Goodridge F, Plimley R, Fleischmann M (1969) A preliminary investigation of fluidized bed electrodes. J Electrochem Soc 116:1600–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bansal RC, Donnet JB, Stoeckli F (1998) Active carbon. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Besnault S, Martin Ruel S, Baig S et al (2014) Technical, economic and environmental evaluation of advanced tertiary treatments for micropollutants removal (oxidation and adsorption). ECOSTP no. IWA, VeronaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolton JR, Bircher KG, Tumas W, Tolman CA (2001) Figures-of-merit for the technical development and application of advanced oxidation technologies for both electric-and solar-driven systems (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 73(4):627–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brillas E, Sirés I (2015) Electrochemical removal of pharmaceuticals from water streams: reactivity elucidation by mass spectrometry. Trends Anal Chem 70:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen YX, Yang SY, Wang K, Lou LP (2005) Role of primary active species and TiO2 surface characteristic in UV-illuminated photodegradation of Acid Orange 7. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 172:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen F, Yu S, Dong X, Zhang S (2012) High-efficient treatment of wastewater contained the carcinogen naphthylamine by electrochemical oxidation with γ-Al2O3 supported MnO2 and Sb-doped SnO2 catalyst. J Hazard Mater 227:474–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dirany A, Sirés I, Oturan N, Oturan MA (2010) Electrochemical abatement of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole from water. Chemosphere 81(5):594–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Domínguez JR, González T, Palo P, Sánchez-Martín J (2010) Electrochemical advanced oxidation of carbamazepine on boron-doped diamond anodes. Influence of operating variables. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:8353–8359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drewes J, Heberer T, Reddersen K (2002) Fate of pharmaceuticals during indirect potable reuse. Water Sci Technol 46:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fortuny A, Font J, Fabregat A (1998) Wet air oxidation of phenol using active carbon as catalyst. Appl Catal B 19:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garbellini G, Salazar-Banda G, Avaca L (2010) Effects of ultrasound on the degradation of pentachlorophenol by boron-doped diamond electrodes. Port Electrochim Acta 28(6):405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. García-Espinoza JD, Mijaylova-Nacheva P, Avilés-Flores M (2018) Electrochemical carbamazepine degradation: effect of the generated active chlorine, transformation pathways and toxicity. Chemosphere 192:142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. García-Gómez C, Drogu P, Zaviska F et al (2014) Experimental design methodology applied to electrochemical oxidation of carbamazepine using Ti/PbO2 and Ti/BDD electrodes. J Electroanal Chem 732:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghodbane I, Nouri L, Hamdaoui O, Chiha M (2008) Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous phase by eucalyptus bark. J Hazard Mater 152:148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gómez M, Martı´nez Bueno M, Lacorte S, Fernandez-Alba A, Aguera A (2007) Pilot survey monitoring pharmaceuticals and related compounds in a sewage treatment plant located on the Mediterranean coast. Chemosphere 66:993–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guoting L, Wong K, Zhang X, Hu C et al (2009) Degradation of Acid Orange 7 using magnetic AgBr under visible light: the roles of oxidizing species. Chemosphere 76:1185–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. He Y, Dong Y, Huang W, Tang X, Liu H, Lin H, Li H (2015) Investigation of boron-doped diamond on porous Ti for electrochemical oxidation of acetaminophen pharmaceutical drug. J Electroanal Chem 759(2):167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Komtchou S, Dirany A, Drogui P, Bermond A (2015) Removal of carbamazepine from spiked municipal wastewater using electro-Fenton process. Eniviron Sci Pollut Res 22(15):11513–11525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Korbahti B, Aktas N, Tanyolac A (2007) Optimization of electrochemical treatment of industrial paint wastewater with response surface methodology. J Hazard Mater 148(1–2):83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lan Y, Coetsier C, Causserand C, Serrano KG (2017) On the role of salts for the treatment of wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals by electrochemical oxidation using a boron doped diamond anode. Electrochim Acta 231:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li P, Zhao Y, Wang L, Ding B, Hu Y, Yan Q (2014) A novel packed-bed electrocatalysis reactor (PBECR) for efficient degradation of organic compounds. Electrochemistry 82(12):1056–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li M, Zhao F, Sillanpää M, Meng Y, Yin D (2015) Electrochemical degradation of 2-diethylamino-6-methyl-4-hydroxypyrimidine using three-dimensional electrodes reactor with ceramic particle electrodes. Sep Purif Technol 156:588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lindsey M, Meyer M, Thurman E (2001) Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in groundwater and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 73(19):4640–4646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma H, Zhuo Q, Wang B (2009) Electro-catalytic degradation of methylene blue wastewater assisted by Fe2O3-modified kaolin. Chem Eng J 155(1):248–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mendoza A, Zonja B, Mastroianni N, Negreira N, López de Alda M, Pérez S, Barceló D, Gil A, Valcárcel Y (2016) Drugs of abuse, cytostatic drugs and iodinated contrast media in tap water from the Madrid region (central Spain): a case study to analyse their occurrence and human health risk characterization. Environ Int 86:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyer W, Reich M, Beier S, Behrendt J, Gulyas H, Otterpohl R (2016) Measured and predicted environmental concentrations of carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol in small and medium rivers in northern Germany. Environ Monit Assess 188(8):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Misra R, Neti NN, Dionysiou DD, Tandekar M, Kanade GS (2015) Novel integrated carbon particle based three dimensional anodes for the electrochemical degradation of reactive dyes. Res Adv 5(14):10799–10808Google Scholar
  30. Monsalvo VM, Lopez J, Munoz M, de Pedro ZM, Casas JA, Mohedano AF, Rodriguez JJ (2015) Application of Fenton-like oxidation as pre-treatment for carbamazepine biodegradation. Chem Eng J 264:856–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Navalon S, Dhakshinamoorthy A, Alvaro M, Garcia H (2011) Heterogeneous Fenton catalysts based on activated carbon and related materials. Chemsuschem 4(12):1712–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Panizza M, Cerisola G (2009) Direct and mediated anodic oxidation of organic pollutants. Chem Rev 109(12):6541–6569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pavia D, Lampman GM, Kriz GS (2009) Introduction to spectroscopy. Brooks/Cole Cengagar Learning, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  34. Saien KSJ (2008) Degradation of the fungicide carbendazim in aqueous solutions with UV/TiO2 process: optimization, kinetics and toxicity studies. J Hazard Mater 157:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh S, Singh S, Lo SL, Kumar N (2016) Electrochemical treatment of Ayurveda pharmaceuticals wastewater: optimization and characterization of sludge residue. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 67:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ternes TA, Joss A (2006) Consumption and occurrence. In: Ternes TA, Joss A (eds) Human pharmaceuticals, hormones and fragrances. The challenge of micropollutants in Urban Water Management. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Tran N, Drogui P, Brar SK, De Coninck A (2017) Synergistic effects of ultrasounds in the sonoelectrochemical oxidation of pharmaceutical carbamazepine pollutant. Ultrason Sonochem 34:380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. USDA: United States Department of Agriculture (2008) World agricultural supply and demand estimates. WASDE 464:1–40Google Scholar
  39. Verlicchi P, Zambello E (2015) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in untreated and treated sewage sludge: occurrence and environmental risk in the case of application on soil—a critical review. Sci Total Environ 538:750–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Verma S, Raj Kumar D (2017) Enhanced ROS generation by ZnO–ammonia modified graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue dye and 4-nitrophenol. J Environ Chem Eng 5(5):4776–4787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wei L, Guo S, Yan G, Chen C, Jiang X (2010) Electrochemical pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor. Electrochim Acta 55:8615–8620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu Z, Cong Y, Zhou M, Tan TE (2005) p-Nitrophenol abatement by the combination of electrocatalysis and activated carbon. Chem Eng J 106(1):83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang C, Jiang Y, Li Y, Hu Z, Zhou L, Zhou M (2013) Three-dimensional electrochemical process for wastewater treatment: a general review. Chem Eng 228:455–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zheng T, Wang Q, Shi Z, Fang Y, Shi S, Wang J, Wu C (2016) Advanced treatment of wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation. J Environ Sci 50(12):21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abolghasem Alighardashi
    • 1
  • Rasoul Shabani Aghta
    • 1
  • Homeira Ebrahimzadeh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil, Water and Environmental EngineeringShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranparsIran
  2. 2.Faculty of ChemistryShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations