Blue Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence from Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
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Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has been extensively used in ultrasensitive electroanalysis because it can be generated electrochemically without using expensive optics and light sources. Visible ECL emission can be obtained with a reasonable quantum yield and stability. Blue ECL is rare and often suffers from stability and poor quantum efficiency. Blue ECL emission at 473 nm from organometallic halide perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs), CH3NH3PbCl1.08Br1.92, is reported here for the first time using tripropylamine (TPrA) as co-reactant. The blue ECL emission peak resembles its photoluminescence peak position. In addition to this blue emission peak, the ECL spectra of CH3NH3PbCl1.08Br1.92 PNCs also showed a broad ECL peak at 745 nm. Generation of the second ECL peak at 745 nm from CH3NH3PbCl1.08Br1.92 PNCs was can be explained by the existence of surface trap states on as-synthesized PNC due to incomplete surface passivation. Halide anion tunability of ECL emission from CH3NH3PbX3 (X: Cl, Br, I) PNCs is also demonstrated. The fluorescence microscopy image of single PNC and stability of selected single PNCs are presented in this with simultaneous acquisition of fluorescence spectra using 405-nm laser excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) decay was described by PL lifetime (τ) of 1.2 ns. The effect of the addition of surfactants (oleic acid and n-octylamine) on the fluorescence intensity and stability of CH3NH3PbCl1.08Br1.92 PNCs is also discussed.
KeywordsECL (electrogenerated chemiluminescence) Photoluminescence (PL) Perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) Blue light emission Photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) Surfactants
We would like to thank the financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF award CHE 1508192 and OIA-1539035). We also thank Central Analytical Facility at The University of Alabama for providing TEM instrument for this study. The technical support from Mr. Johnny Goodwin during TEM analysis of PNCs is greatly appreciated.