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Synthesis of Heat-Integrated Water Allocation Networks Through Pinch Analysis

  • Shweta Kamat
  • Santanu BandyopadhyayEmail author
Original Research Paper
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Thermal energy (or utility consumption) and water can be optimized through the synthesis of heat-integrated water allocation networks (HIWANs). Various numerical optimizations, pinch-based and hybrid tools, have been proposed for HIWAN synthesis. Numerical optimization techniques make it difficult to visualize the problem due to complex formulations involving non-linear equations and/or integer variables. Pinch-based methods provide physical insights but are restricted to graphical techniques. As a result of this, HIWAN synthesis through pinch-based techniques gets tedious for medium-scale to large-scale data. HIWAN synthesis can be solved using a hybrid technique that combines the physical understanding of pinch analysis with a series of linear programming (LP) formulations. The proposed methodology converts the LP into an algebraic solution strategy and thereby making the HIWAN synthesis procedure entirely based on pinch analysis. Unlike the other pinch-based methods that rely on temperature-based heuristics to guide the water re-use streams, this method synthesizes HIWAN as an outcome of a utility minimization algorithm. This algorithm is an extension of the compression work minimization algorithm in hydrogen networks. The nature of these two problems differs due to the requirement of two entities (heating and cooling) in the former instead of one entity (compression work) in the latter. Besides freshwater minimization, this methodology can be applied for the conservation of other resources as well. Illustrative examples of three water allocation networks (one with regeneration) and an ammonia allocation network demonstrate the proposed methodology.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Heat-integrated water allocation networks Process integration Pinch analysis Isothermal mixing Interplant flow 

Nomenclature

Δ

Difference between hot and cold utility (kW)

μp

Hot utility above hot pinch temperature for potential pinch interval, p (kW)

ΔTmin

Minimum approach temperature of a heat exchanger

Cdj

Maximum contaminant concentration acceptable by jth demand (ppm)

Cdr

Regeneration inlet contaminant concentration (ppm)

Csr

Regeneration outlet contaminant concentration (ppm)

Cs0

Contaminant concentration in freshwater (ppm)

Csi

Contaminant concentration of ith source (ppm)

cp

Specific heat capacity (kJ/kg °C)

FBA

Flow transferred from plant B to plant A

Fd0

Wastewater flow rate (kg/s)

Fdj

Flow requirement of jth demand (kg/s)

f0j

Freshwater flow rate requirement of jth demand (kg/s)

fi0

Waste to be disposed from ith source (kg/s)

fij

Flow allocated from ith source to jth demand (kg/s)

Fs0

Freshwater flow rate (kg/s)

Fsi

Flow available from ith source (kg/s)

N

Number of temperature levels in pinch region

Nd

Number of internal demands

Ns

Number of internal sources

PI

Number of potential pinch intervals

Qcu

Cold utility (kW)

Qhu

Hot utility (kW)

Qhup

Total hot utility for potential pinch interval, p (kW)

(Qhup)PI

Hot utility in potential pinch interval, p (kW)

(Qhup)(N/N-1)

Heat required for flow from N-1 to Nth level in potential pinch interval (kW)

Tcp

Potential cold pinch temperature (°C)

Tdj

Temperature required by jth demand (°C)

Thp

Potential hot pinch temperature (°C)

TN

Temperature of Nth level (°C)

TN-1

Temperature of N-1th level (°C)

Tsi

Temperature of ith source (°C)

Abbreviations

HEN

Heat exchanger network

HIWAN

Heat-integrated water allocation networks

LCC

Limiting composite curve

LP

Linear programming

MILP

Mixed-integer linear programming

MINLP

Mixed-integer non-linear programming

NLP

Non-linear programming

PDM

Pinch design method

WAN

Water allocation network

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

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