Assessing Demographic and Water Sensitivities Arising due to Urban Water Insecurity in Haldwani, Uttarakhand (India): a GIS-Based Spatial Analysis

  • Riyan HabeebEmail author
  • Yashi Gupta
  • Himanshu Chinwan
  • Elizabeth Barker


Urban water security is a growing concern in fast urbanizing Indian cities. Increasing population, urbanization and changing climatic patterns have great impact on urban water systems, such as surface and underground water resources. Although water insecurity is faced by all, population with lower socio-economic strata tend to be worst affected by the water woes. In this regard, it is imperative to assess water insecurity as sensitivity of residents towards water supply and management in the city at sub-administrative levels. The paper, thus, attempts to assess the rising water insecurity in Haldwani, a medium-sized city located on the foothills of Uttarakhand Himalayas (India), in conjugation with demographic and institutional water supply from the available secondary data sets. Using statistical and GIS-based spatial analysis, the study attempts to evolve a water sensitivity scale at ward level, simultaneously identifying lower socio-economic wards in the city through demographic sensitivity. The result is the delineation of those wards and population that show high water insecurity at the city’s administrative level, thus aiding in further facilitation of equitable water management at the urban level. From the study, it is evident that marginal populations continue to face water stresses since they are highly dependent upon water and water supplied by the city is insufficient for their daily needs. These wards also show high demographic vulnerability with respect to low literacy and high unemployment rate. The city faces threats of climate change as well; decreasing precipitation as well as shifting hot months will further escalate the problem. A continuation of this trend will worsen the water security in the city making the marginal population most vulnerable to the foreseen risks. The paper, thus, elaborates a methodological approach to assess the municipal water supply along with demographic patterns to aid in equitable and climate-adaptive water management in the city.


Urban water Climate change Himalayas Sensitivity 


Supplementary material

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ecology Development and Research (CEDAR)DehradunIndia
  2. 2.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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