Nearly four decades ago, a highway expansion project resulted in the excavation of 35 unmarked graves at Catoctin Furnace, an industrial ironworking village in western Maryland. Initial analysis identified the remains as Africans or African Americans associated with the late 18th- and early 19th-century operation of the ironworks. Renewed efforts to learn more about these poorly documented individuals and connect the site’s untold past to present generations through heritage tourism, prompted reanalysis of the skeletons. Updated assessments of demography and pathology, along with new analyses including heavy metals and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, elucidate the life histories of these early laborers and their involvement in furnace operations. Some data derived from recent testing differentiate the Catoctin Furnace individuals from their plantation-based contemporaries in the mid-Atlantic, suggesting regional differences in diet and possible occupational exposure to toxins.
Hace casi cuatro décadas, un proyecto de expansión de carreteras resultó en la excavación de 35 tumbas sin marcar en Catoctin Furnace, una aldea industrial de hierro en el oeste de Maryland. El análisis inicial identificó los restos como africanos o afroamericanos asociados con la operación de la herrería de fines del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX. Los esfuerzos renovados para aprender más sobre estas personas poco documentadas y conectar el pasado inédito del sitio con las generaciones actuales a través del turismo patrimonial impulsaron el nuevo análisis de los esqueletos. Las evaluaciones actualizadas de la demografía y la patología, junto con nuevos análisis, incluidas las pruebas de metales pesados e isótopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno, aclaran las historias de vida de estos primeros trabajadores y su participación en las operaciones del horno. Algunos datos derivados de pruebas recientes diferencian a los individuos de Catoctin Furnace de sus contemporáneos en plantaciones en el Atlántico medio, lo que sugiere diferencias regionales en la dieta y la posible exposición ocupacional a las toxinas.
Il y a presque quarante ans, un projet d'expansion d'autoroute a conduit à l'excavation de 35 tombes sans inscription dans la Fournaise de Catoctin, un village où se pratiquait une industrie du fer dans le Maryland occidental. L'analyse initiale a identifié les restes d'individus africains ou africains-américains associés aux opérations de travail du fer à la fin du 18ème siècle et au début du 19ème siècle. Des efforts renouvelés pour en savoir plus sur ces individus médiocrement documentés et connecter le passé sans récit du site aux générations actuelles par le biais d'un tourisme de mémoire, a déclenché une nouvelle analyse des squelettes. Les évaluations mises à jour de la démographie et de la pathologie, menées conjointement à des analyses nouvelles, notamment les tests de recherche de métaux lourds et d’isotopes stables du carbone et du nitrogène, élucident les récits des vies de ces premiers travailleurs et de leur participation aux opérations d'exploitation de la fournaise. Certaines données obtenues à partir des récents tests différencient les individus de la Fournaise de Catoctin de leurs contemporains ayant vécu dans des plantations de la région mid-Atlantique, suggérant des différences régionales quant au régime alimentaire et une exposition professionnelle potentielle aux toxines.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Delta values are expressed as δR=([Rsample-Rreference]/Rreference)*1000, where R is the ratio of interest (i.e., 13C/12C or 15N/14N) relative to the reference standards of V-PDB and atmospheric air for C and N, respectively.
The majority of samples were processed by the Augustana College Stable Isotope Lab. Select samples were tested by Paleo-Isochem, Inc., the Smithsonian’s Museum Conservation Institute, and the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia. Collagen-extraction methods entailed removing surface contaminants, followed by demineralization in 0.3N hydrochloric acid at 4°C, changing the acid daily until reaction ceased. The collagen pseudomorph was rinsed to neutrality, treated with 5% sodium hydroxide for 24 hours at 4°C, and again rinsed to neutrality. Approximately 100 mg of collagen were gelatinized in 5 ml of water (pH 3) for 24 hours at 90°C. Water-soluble and -insoluble phases were separated by filtration, and the former were lyophilized and weighed to obtain a collagen yield. The δ13Ccollagen and δ15Ncollagen values were determined by flash combustion to produce CO2 and N2 and measured against the appropriate reference gas on a VG SIRA 10 dual-inlet mass spectrometer with Carlo Erba EA118 CHN interface. Stable-isotope measurements and weight-percent C and N values were obtained from a single sample combustion. Analytical precision is ±0.1‰ for carbon and ±0.2‰ for nitrogen. Bioapatite analysis involved grinding portions of cleaned bone followed by submersion in 1.5% sodium hypochlorite for 48 hours. The samples were rinsed to neutrality, placed in 1M acetic acid for 24 hours, and again rinsed to neutrality. A minimum of 0.125 g of the bioapatite was loaded into the side arm of a reaction vessel with 4 ml of 100% phosphoric acid loaded into the straight arm of the vessel. Each vessel was evacuated, mixed, and incubated at 25°C for 48 hours. CO2 was collected by cryogenic distillation, and the δ13Capatite was determined by a VG SIRA 10 dual-inlet mass spectrometer.
ICP-MS is a highly sensitive analytical tool capable of differentiating a range of elements at concentrations below one part per million. Sample selection minimized skeletal impact, with preference given to identifiable bone fragments or hand and foot elements with adequate amounts of cortical bone. Exterior contaminants were removed with a silicon carbide tool before being rinsed with deionized water and ground to a powder in an agate mortar and pestle. Resulting powder was dried at 100°C overnight before digestion in a combination of 4 mL nitric acid and 1 mL hydrogen peroxide, with identical parameters being used for all bone and quality controls. A 100 mg aliquot of digestate from each sample was weighed into clean 15 cm3 centrifuge tubes before being topped off to 10 g with 2% nitric acid, as described by Little et al. (2004). Diluted solutions were then introduced into a GBC Optimass 9500 inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-TOF-MS).
Agarwal, Sabrina C. 2016 Bone Morphologies and Histories: Life Course Approaches in Bioarchaeology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 159(S61):130–149.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 2005 Public Health Statement: Zinc, CAS#: 7440-66-6, August. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry <https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp60-c1-b.pdf>. Accessed 24 September 2019.
Ambrose, Stanley H. 1990Preparation and Characterization of Bone and Tooth Collagen for Isotopic Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 17(4):431–451.
Ambrose, Stanley H., and Lynette Norr 1993Experimental Evidence for the Relationship of the Carbon Isotope Ratios of Whole Diet and Dietary Protein to Those of Bone Collagen and Carbonate. In Prehistoric Human Bone––Archaeology at the Molecular Level, Joseph B. Lambert and Gisela Grupe, editors, pp. 1–33. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Anderson, Elizabeth Yourtee 2013 Catoctin Furnace: Portrait of an Iron-Making Village. History Press, Charleston, SC.
Angel, J. Lawrence, and Jennifer O. Kelley 1983 Health Status of Colonial Iron-Worker Slaves. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 60(2):170–171.
Aufderheide, Arthur C. 1989Chemical Analysis of Skeletal Remains. In Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, Mehmet Yaşar İşcan and Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, editors, pp. 237–260. Wiley-Liss, New York, NY.
Aufderheide, Arthur C., J. Lawrence Angel, Jennifer O. Kelley, Alain C. Outlaw, Merry A. Outlaw, George Rapp, and Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr. 1985Lead in Bone III. Prediction of Social Correlates from Skeletal Lead Content in Four Colonial American Populations (Catoctin Furnace, College Landing, Governor’s Land, and Irene Mound). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 66(4):353–361.
Aufderheide, Arthur C., Fraser D. Neiman, Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr., and George Rapp 1981Lead in Bone II: Skeletal-Lead Content as an Indicator of Lifetime Lead Ingestion and the Social Correlates in an Archaeological Population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 55(3):285–291.
Aufderheide, Arthur C., George Rapp, Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr., J. E. Wallgren, R. Macchiarelli, G. Fornaciari, F. Mallegni, and R. S. Corruccini 1992Lead Exposure in Italy: 800 BC–700 AD. International Journal of Anthropology 7(2):9–15.
Aufderheide, Arthur C., and Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr. 1992Selected Aspects of the Spatial Distribution of Lead in Bone. NeuroToxicology 13(4):809–820.
Aufderheide, Arthur C., Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr., George Rapp, and JoAnn Wallgren 1988 Anthropological Applications of Skeletal Lead Analysis. American Anthropologist 90(4):931–936.
Balasse, Marie, Hervé Bocherens, and André Mariotti 1999 Intra-Bone Variability of Collagen and Apatite Isotopic Composition Used as Evidence of a Change of Diet. Journal of Archaeological Science 26(6):593–598.
Barca, Kathryn G. 2014Smithsonian Skeletal Biology Program: The Human Skeleton Database. Paper presented at the First Annual Meeting of the Middle Atlantic Bioanthropology Interest Group, Richmond, VA.
Barrett, Autumn R., and Michael L. Blakey 2011Life Histories of Enslaves Africans in Colonial New York. In Social Bioarchaeology, Sabrina C Agarwal and Bonnie A Glencross, editors, pp. 212–251. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Battle-Baptiste, Whitney 2011Black Feminist Archaeology. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Blakey, Michael L., Teresa E. Leslie, and Joseph P. Reidy 1994 Frequency and Chronological Distribution of Dental Enamel Hypoplasia in Enslaved African Americans: A Test of the Weaning Hypothesis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95(4):371–384.
Blakey, Michael L., and Lesley M. Rankin-Hill (editors) 2009 The Skeletal Biology of the New York African Burial Ground: Part I. Howard University Press, Washington, DC. National Park Service <https://www.nps.gov/afbg/learn/historyculture/upload/downVol1-Part1-The-Skeletal-Biology-of-the-NYAGB.pdf>. Accessed 30 August 2019.
Bowes, Jessica 2011 Provisioned, Produced, Procured: Slave Subsistence Strategies and Social Relations at Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest. Journal of Ethnobiology 31(1):89–109.
Bowes, Jessica, and Heather Trigg 2012 Social Dimensions of Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Slaves’ Uses of Plants at Poplar Forest. In Jefferson’s Poplar Forest: Unearthing a Virginian Plantation, Barbara J. Heath and Jack Gary, editors, pp. 155–171. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Brady, Ellen M., Aimee J. Leithoff, Katherine Lee Priddy, and Darby O’Donnell 2005Phase II Evaluation of Sites 44HN356, 44HN357, 44HN360 and Intensive Level Architectural Evaluation of the Timberlake Farmstead, VDHR File 042-0203, Proposed Rutland Development Area, Hanover County, Virginia. Report to HHHunt Communities, Inc., Glen Allen, VA, from Cultural Resources, Inc., Norfolk, VA.
Buikstra, Jane E., and Douglas H. Ubelaker (editors) 1994Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Research Series 44. Fayetteville.
Burnston, Sharon Ann 1981The Cemetery at Catoctin Furnace, MD: The Invisible People. Maryland Archaeology 17(2):19–31.
Burnston, Sharon Ann 1997The Invisible People: The Cemetery at Catoctin Furnace. In In Remembrance: Archaeology and Death, David A. Poirier and Nicholas F. Bellantoni, editors, pp. 93–103. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT.
Burnston, Sharon Ann, and Ronald A. Thomas 1981Archaeological Data Recovery at Catoctin Furnace Cemetery, Frederick County, Maryland. Report to Orr & Son, Thurmont, MD, and Maryland Department of Transportation, Baltimore, from Mid-Atlantic Archaeological Research, Inc., Newark, DE.
Comer, Elizabeth A. 2016Catoctin Furnace: Academic Research Informing Heritage Tourism. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, Washington, DC.
Corruccini, Robert S., Jerome S. Handler, and Keith P. Jacobi 1985Chronological Distribution of Enamel Hypoplasias and Weaning in a Caribbean Slave Population. Human Biology 57(4):699–711.
Covey, Herbert C., and Dwight Eisnach 2009What the Slaves Ate: Recollections of African American Foods and Foodways from the Slave Narratives. ABC CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA.
Crader, Diana C. 1990Slave Diet at Monticello. American Antiquity 55(4): 690–717.
Crist, Thomas A. J. 1995Bone Chemistry Analysis and Documentary Archaeology: Dietary Patterns of Enslaved African Americans in the South Carolina Low Country. In Bodies of Evidence, Anne L. Grauer, editor, pp. 197–219. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Crist, Thomas A. J., Daniel G. Roberts, Reginald H. Pitts, John P. McCarthy, and Michael Parrington 1997The First African Baptist Church Cemeteries: African-American Mortality and Trauma in Antebellum Philadelphia. In In Remembrance: Archaeology and Death, David A. Poirier and Nicholas F. Bellantoni, editors, pp. 19–49. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT.
Cultural Resources, Inc. 2003Phase III Data Recovery of Sites 44GL394, 44GL395, 44GL399 at the Middle Peninsula Landfill and Recycling Facility Gloucester County, Virginia. Report to Middle Peninsula Landfill and Recycling Facility, Glenns, VA, from Cultural Resources, Inc., Fredericksburg, VA.
DeNiro, Michael J. 1985Postmortem Preservation and Alteration of In Vivo Bone Collagen Isotope Ratios in Relation to Palaeodietary Reconstruction. Nature 317(6040): 806–809.
DeNiro, Michael J., and Samuel Epstein 1978Influence of Diet on the Distribution of Carbon Isotopes in Animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42(5):495–506.
DeNiro, Michael J., and Samuel Epstein 1981Influence of Diet on the Distribution of Nitrogen Isotopes in Animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45(3):341–351.
Dew, Charles B. 1974David Ross and the Oxford Iron Works: A Study of Industrial Slavery in the Early Nineteenth-Century South. William and Mary Quarterly 31(2):189–224.
Dew, Charles B. 1994Bond of Iron: Master and Slave at Buffalo Forge. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, NY.
Ericson, Jonathon E., Donald R. Smith, and A. Russell Flegal 1991Skeletal Concentrations of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Silver in Ancient North American Pecos Indians. Environmental Health Perspectives 93:217–223.
Ezzo, Joseph A. 1994Zinc as a Paleodietary Indicator: An Issue of Theoretical Validity in Bone-Chemistry Analysis. American Antiquity 59(4):606–621.
Fernandes, Ricardo, Marie-Josée Nadeau, and Pieter M. Grootes 2012Macronutrient-Based Model for Dietary Carbon Routing in Bone Collagen and Bioapatite. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 4(4): 291–301.
Fogel, Marilyn L., Noreen Tuross, and Douglas W. Owsley 1989Nitrogen Isotope Tracers of Human Lactation in Modern and Archaeological Populations. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 88:111–117.
France, Christine A. M., and Douglas W. Owsley 2015Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Spacing between Bone and Tooth Collagen and Hydroxyapatite in Human Archaeological Remains. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 25(3):299–312.
France, Christine A. M., Douglas W. Owsley, and Lee-Ann C. Hayek 2014Stable Isotope Indicators of Provenance and Demographics in 18th and 19th Century North Americans. Journal of Archaeological Science 42(1):356–366.
Franklin, Maria 2001The Archaeological and Symbolic Dimensions of Soul Food: Race, Culture, and Afro-Virginian Archaeology of Identity. In Race and the Archaeology of Identity, Charles E. Orser, Jr., editor, pp. 88–107. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Gordon, Robert B. 1996American Iron, 1607–1900. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Grupe, Gisela 1988Impact of the Choice of Bone Samples on Trace Element Data in Excavated Human Skeletons. Journal of Archaeological Science 15(2):123–129.
Handler, Jerome S., Arthur C. Aufderheide, Robert S. Corruccini, Elizabeth M. Brandon, and Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr. 1986Lead Contact and Poisoning in Barbados Slaves: Historical, Chemical, and Biological Evidence. Social Science History 10(4):399–425.
Harritt., Roger K., and S. C. Radosevich 1992Results of Instrument Neutron-Activation Trace-Element Analysis of Human Remains from the Naknek Region, Southwest Alaska. American Antiquity 57(2):288–299.
Hedges, Robert E. M. 2003On Bone Collagen—Apatite-Carbonate Isotopic Relationships. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13(1&2):66–79.
Herbert, Eugenia W. 1993Iron, Gender, and Power: Rituals of Transformation in African Societies. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Hernberg, Sven 2000Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 38(3):244–254.
Hillson, Simon 2001Recording Dental Caries in Archaeological Human Remains. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 11(4):249–289.
Hillson, Simon 2008The Current State of Dental Decay. In Technique and Application in Dental Anthropology, J. D. Irish and G. C. Nelson, editors, pp. 111–135. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Hu, Howard, Tor D. Tosteson, Arthur C. Aufderheide, Lorentz E. Wittmers, Jr., D. E. Burger, F. L. Milder, George Schidlovsky, and K. W. Jones 1990Distribution of Lead in Human Bone. In Advances in In Vivo Composition Studies, S. Yasumura, J. E. Harrison, K. G. McNeill, and A. D. Woodhead, editors, pp. 267–274. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
Hudgins, Carter L. 1977Historical Archaeology and Salvage Archaeological Excavations at College Landing: An Interim Report. Manuscript, Virginia Research Center for Archaeology, William and Mary University, Williamsburg, VA.
Imlay, John H. 200644FX Burke Lake Burial JLA-BL2, Artifact Definition. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Imlay, John H. 2008Artifacts Associated with 18PGBADEN-NMNH-SI9208. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Imlay, John H. 2010Artifact Analysis Associated with Unidentified Human Remains Re: Case # 09-85-02-1284, SI 2009-15/York River VA. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Imlay, John H. 2011Artifacts Associated with 86-167, Stafford County, VA, Sheriffs Dept., Case #4-3980-86. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Imlay, John H. 2012Coffin Nail Analysis of the Fischer Site, 44LOMASON-NMNH-384579, 44LOMASON-NMNH-384590. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Iyenger, Govindaraja V., Humphry J. M. Bowen, and Willy E. Kollmer 1978The Elemental Composition of Human Tissues and Body Fluids. Verlag Chemie, New York, NY.
Jackson, Fatimah, Latifa Jackson, Christopher Cross, and Cameron Clarke 2016What Could You Do with 400 Years of Biological History on African Americans? Evaluating the Potential Scientific Benefit of Systematic Studies of Dental and Skeletal Materials on African Americans from the 17th through 20th Centuries. American Journal of Human Biology 28(4):510–513.
Jantz, Richard L. 2015Craniometric Analysis of Catoctin Furnace Skeletal Series. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Jim, Susan, Stanley H. Ambrose, and Richard P. Evershed 2004Stable Carbon Isotopic Evidence for Differences in the Dietary Origin of Bone Cholesterol, Collagen and Apatite: Implications for Their Use in Palaeodietary Reconstruction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(1):61–72.
Katzenberg, M. Anne 1993Age Differences and Population Variation in Stable Isotope Values from Ontario, Canada. In Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level, Joseph B. Lambert and Gisela Grupe, editors, pp. 39–62. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Katzenberg, M. Anne, and Susan Pfeiffer 1995Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for Weaning Age in a Nineteenth Century Canadian Skeletal Sample. In Bodies of Evidence: Reconstructing History through Skeletal Analysis, Anne L. Grauer, editor, pp. 221–235. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Keenleyside, Anne, Xisai Song, Christopher E. Webber, and David R. Chettle 1996The Lead Content of Human Bones from the1845 Franklin Expedition. Journal of Archaeological Science 23:461–465.
Kelley, Jennifer Olsen, and J. Lawrence Angel 1983The Workers of Catoctin Furnace. Maryland Archeology 19(1):2–17.
Kelley, Jennifer Olsen, and J. Lawrence Angel 1987Life Stresses of Slavery. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 74(2):199–211.
Kohn, Matthew J., and Thure E. Cerling 2002Stable Isotope Compositions of Biological Apatite. In Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance, M. J. Kohn, J. Rakovain, and J. M. Hughes, editors, pp. 455–480. Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 48. Washington, DC.
Lesley, J. Peter 1859The Iron Manufacturer’s Guide to the Furnaces, Forges, and Rolling Mills of the United States. John Wiley, New York, NY.
Lewis, Ronald L. 1979Coal, Iron, and Slaves: Industrial Slavery in Maryland and Virginia, 1715–1865. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.
Libby, Jean 1993Technological and Cultural Transfer of African Ironmaking into the Americas and the Relationship to Slave Resistance. In Rediscovering America: National, Cultural, and Disciplinary Boundaries Re-Examined, Louisiana State University, Department of Foreign Language and Literatures, Baton Rouge. Allies for Freedom <http://www.alliesforfreedom.org/files/African_Technology_Transfer.pdf>. Accessed 14 June 2017.
Little, Nicole C., L. J. Kosakowsky, Robert J. Speakman, M. D. Glascock, and J. S. Lohse 2004Characterization of Maya Pottery by INAA and ICP-MS. Journal of Radioanalitical Nuclear Chemistry 262(1):103–110.
Mack, Mark E., Alan H. Goodman, Michael L. Blakey, and Arion Mayes 2009Odontological Indicators of Disease, Diet, and Nutritional Inadequacy. In The Skeletal Biology of the New York African Burial Ground: Part I, Michael L. Blakey and Lesley M. Rankin-Hill, editors, pp. 143–168. Howard University Press, Washington, DC. National Park Service <https://www.nps.gov/afbg/learn/historyculture/upload/downVol1-Part1-The-Skeletal-Biology-of-the-NYAGB.pdf>. Accessed 30 August 2019.
Mant, Madeleine, and Charlotte Roberts 2015Diet and Dental Caries in Post-Medieval London. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 19(1):188–207.
McAndrew, Lindsay 2012Graves Speak: Historical Context and Analysis of Human Remains Found in Salisbury, MD. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
McDonald, Bradley, and Sarah Meacham 2001Archaeological Excavation of an Unmarked Cemetery at Site 44HE950 at the Confederate Forest Development, Henrico County, Virginia. Report to R & R Development Company, Highland Springs, VA, from Gray & Pape, Inc., Richmond, VA.
McKee, Larry 1999Food Supply and Plantation Social Order. In I, Too, Am America, Theresa A. Singleton, editor, pp. 218–239. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.
McLearen, Douglas C., Martha McCartney, Taft Kiser, and Lily A. Richards 2003Phase III Data Recovery at Site 44CE326, Fort A.P. Hill, Caroline County, Virginia. Report to Fort A. P. Hill, Bowling Green, VA, from Cultural Resources, Inc., Fredericksburg, VA.
McNulty, Thomas, Andery Calkins, Peggy Ostrom, Hasand Gandhi, Michael Gottfried, Larry Martin, and Douglas Gage 2002Stable Isotope Values of Bone Organic Matter: Artificial Diagenesis Experiments and Paleoecology of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming. PALAIOS 17(1):36–49.
Minagawa, Masao, and Eitaro Wada 1984Stepwise Enrichment of 15N along Food Chains: Further Evidence and the Relation between Δ15N and Animal Age. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48(5):1135–1140.
Mrozowski, Stephen A., Maria Franklin, and Leslie Hunt 2008Archaeobotanical Analysis and Interpretations of Enslaved Virginian Plant Use at Rich Neck Plantation (44WB52). American Antiquity 73(4): 699–728.
Nystrom, Kenneth C. 2013Dental Health of Free Blacks in New York State during the Mid-19th Century. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 23(5):505–528.
Orr, Kenneth G., and Ronald G. Orr 1977An Intensive Archaeological Survey of Alignment 1 Corridor, U.S. Route 15 from Putman Road to Maryland Route 77 in Frederick County, Maryland (Preliminary Draft). Report to Maryland Department of Transportation, State Highway Administration, Baltimore, from Orr & Son, Thurmont, MD.
Owsley, Douglas W. 1990The Skeletal Biology of North American Historical Populations. In A Life in Science: Papers in Honor of J. Lawrence Angel, Jane E. Buikstra, editor, pp. 171–190. Center for American Archeology, Scientific Papers 6. Kampsville, IL.
Owsley, Douglas W. 2002Results of the Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains and Associated Artifacts Recovered from the Jennings Property (Gunston Hall). Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Owsley, Douglas W., and Karin S. Bruwelheide 2009Patuxent River Site, Maryland. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Owsley, Douglas W., Karin S. Bruwelheide, and Laurie Burgess 2003Examination of Skeletal Remains from Prince George’s County, Maryland (SI2003-4). Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Owsley, Douglas W., Karin S. Bruwelheide, Richard L. Jantz, Jodi L. Koste, and Merry Outlaw 2017Skeletal Evidence of Anatomical and Surgical Training in Nineteenth-Century Richmond. In The Bioarchaeology of Dissection and Autopsy in the United States, Kenneth C. Nystrom, editor, pp. 143–164. Springer, New York, NY.
Owsley, Douglas W., and Richard L. Jantz 1989A Systematic Approach to the Skeletal Biology of the Southern Plains, from Clovis to Comanchero: Archaeological Overview of the Southern Great Plains. Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Research Series 35. Fayetteville.
Owsley, Douglas W., Rebecca R. Kardash, and Dana D. Kollmann 2016Examination of the Maryland Historical Trust Human Skeletal Collection. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Owsley, Douglas W., Charles E. Orser, Jr., Robert W. Mann, Peer H. Moore-Jansen, and Robert L. Montgomery 1987Demography and Pathology of an Urban Slave Population from New Orleans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 74(2):185–197.
Owsley, Douglas W., and Karin Sandness 1994Osteological Examination of Slave Burials from the Spring Mills Site, Beddington, West Virginia. Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Panigrahi, Inusha 2011Craniosynostosis Genetics: The Mystery Unfolds. Indian Journal of Human Genetics 17(2):48–53.
Passey, Benjamin H., Todd F. Robinson, Linda K. Ayliffe, Thure E. Cerling, Matt Sponheimer, M. Denise Dearing, Beverly L. Roeder, and James R. Ehleringe 2005Carbon Isotope Fractionation between Diet, Breath CO2, and Bioapatite in Different Mammals. Journal of Archaeological Science 32(10):1459–1470.
Pezzarossi, Guido, Heather Law, and Ryan Kennedy 2012“Hoe Cakes and Pickerel”: Cooking Traditions and Community at a Nineteenth Century Nipmuc Farmstead. In The Menial Art of Cooking: Archaeological Studies of Cooking and Food Preparation, Sarah R. Graff and Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría, editors, pp. 201–230. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.
Qin, Ying, Haomiao Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Huang Huang, Ya Qin, and Yaoting Xie 2015Experimental Dissolution of Lead from Bronze Vessels and the Lead Content of Human Bones from Western Zhou Dynasty Tombs in Hengshui, Shanxi, China. Journal of Archaeological Science 64:22–29.
Rankin-Hill, Lesley M. 1997A Biohistory of 19th Century Afro-Americans: The Burial Remains of a Philadelphia Cemetery. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT.
Rasmussen, Kaare Lund, Jesper Lier Boldsen, Hans Krongaard Kristensen, Lilian Skytte, Katrine Lykke Hansen, Louise Mølholm, Pieter M. Grootes, Marie-Josée Nadeau, and Karen Marie Flöche Eriksen 2008Mercury Levels in Danish Medieval Human Bones. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(8):2295–2306.
Rathbun, Ted A. 1987Health and Disease at a South Carolina Plantation: 1840–1870. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 74(2):239–253.
Rathbun, Ted A., and Richard H. Steckel 2002The Health of Slaves and Free Blacks in the East. In The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere, Richard H. Steckel and Jerome C. Rose, editors, pp. 208–225. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Reed, Paula S. 2011Tillers of the Soil: A History of Agriculture in Mid-Maryland. Catoctin Center for Regional Studies, Frederick, MD.
Reitsema, Laurie J., Tad E. Brown, Carla S. Hadden, Russell B. Cutts, Maran E. Little, and Brandon T. Ritchison 2015Provisioning an Urban Economy: Isotopic Perspectives on Landscape Use and Animal Sourcing on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Southeastern Archaeology 34(3):237–254.
Rose, Jerome C. 1985Gone to a Better Land: A Biohistory of a Rural Black Cemetery in the Post-Reconstruction South. Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Research Series 25. Fayetteville.
Sandford, Mary K. 1992A Reconsideration of Trace Element Analysis in Prehistoric Bone. In Skeletal Biology of Past Peoples: Research Methods, Shelley Rae Saunders and Mary Anne Katzenberg, editors, pp. 79–103. Wiley-Liss, New York, NY.
Sandford, Mary K. 1994Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue: Chemical Analyses in Anthropology. Gordon and Breach, Langhorne, PA.
Sandstead, Harold H. 1982Availability of Zinc and Its Requirements in Human Subjects. In Clinical, Biochemical, and Nutritional Aspects of Trace Elements, Ananda Shiva Prasad, editor, pp. 83–101. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, NY.
Sandstead, Harold H. 1984Trace Metals in Human Nutrition. In Nutrition in the 20th Century, Myron Winick, editor, pp. 37–46. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Schoeninger, Margaret J. 1985Trophic Level Effects on 15N/14N and 13C/12C Ratios in Bone Collagen and Strontium Levels in Bone Mineral. Journal of Human Evolution 14(5): 515–525.
Schoeninger, Margaret J., and Michael J. DeNiro 1984Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopic Composition of Bone Collagen from Marine and Terrestrial Animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48(4):625–639.
Sealy, Judith C., Nikolaas J. van der Merwe, Keith A. Hobson, D. R. Horton, R. Barry Lewis, John Parkington, Peter Robertshaw, and H. P. Schwarcz 1986Isotope Assessment and the Seasonal-Mobility Hypothesis in the Southwestern Cape of South Africa. Current Anthropology 27(2):135–150.
Seiter, Jane I. 2016The African American Cemetery at Catoctin Furnace: Bridging the Past and the Future. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, Washington, DC.
Shuler, Kristrina A. 2011Life and Death on a Barbadian Sugar Plantation: Historic and Bioarchaeological Views of Infection and Mortality at Newton Plantation. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 21(1):66–81.
Singleton, Theresa A. 1997Facing the Challenges of a Public African-American Archaeology. Historical Archaeology 31(3):146–152.
Springate, Megan E., and Amy Raes 2013The Power of Choice: Reflections of Economic Ability, Status, and Ethnicity in the Foodways of a Free African American Family in Northwestern New Jersey. Northeast Historical Archaeology 42:6–28.
Tchounwou, Paul B., Clement G. Yedjou, Anita K. Patlolla, and Dwayne J. Sutton 2012Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment. In Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, Andreas Luch, editor, pp. 133–164. Springer, Basel, Germany.
Thomas, Ronald A., Glen S. Mellin, Ted Payne, Sharon Burnston, and John P. McCarthy 1980Archaeological Investigations at Catoctin Furnace, Frederick County, Maryland. Report to Orr & Son, Thurmont, MD, from Mid-Atlantic Archaeological Research, Inc., Newark, NJ.
Tieszen, Larry L., and Tim Fagre 1993Carbon Isotopic Variability in Modern and Archaeological Maize. Journal of Archaeological Science 20(1):25–40.
Townsend, Alex, Ronald Thomas, and Kenneth Orr 1979Specifications and Research Designs: The Catoctin Furnace Archaeological Mitigation Project, U.S. Route 15 from Putman Road to Route 77. Report to the State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, from Orr & Son, Thurmont, MD.
Turner, Bethany L., George D. Kamenov, John D. Kingston, and George J. Armelagos 2009Insights into Immigration and Social Class at Machu Picchu, Peru Based on Oxygen, Strontium, and Lead Isotopic Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(2):317–332.
Ubelaker, Douglas H., and Douglas W. Owsley 2003Isotopic Evidence for Diet in the Seventeenth-Century Colonial Chesapeake. American Antiquity 68(1):129–139.
van der Merwe, Nikolaas J. 1982Carbon Isotopes, Photosynthesis, and Archaeology: Different Pathways of Photosynthesis Cause Characteristic Changes in Carbon Isotope Ratios that Make Possible the Study of Prehistoric Human Diets. American Scientist 70(6):596–606.
Vogel, John C., and Nikolaas J. van der Merwe 1977Isotopic Evidence for Early Maize Cultivation in New York State. American Antiquity 42(2):238–242.
Wanner, Robert, and Till Sonnemann 2014Mapping the Edges: Ground-Penetrating Radar Survey at the Catoctin African American Cemetery. Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Eastern States Archaeological Federation, Solomons, MD.
White, Christine D. 2005Gendered Food Behaviour among the Maya. Journal of Social Archaeology 5(3):356–382.
Williams, George H. 1893Mines and Minerals. In Maryland, Its Resources, Industries and Institutions, pp. 89–153. Sun Job Printing Office, Baltimore, MD.
Windley, Lathan A. (editor) 1983Runaway Slave Advertisements: A Documentary History from the 1730s to 1790, Vol. 2. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.
Wittmers, Lorentz, Jr., Arthur C. Aufderheide, George Rapp, and Agnes Alich 2002Archaeological Contributions of Skeletal Lead Analysis. Accounts of Chemical Research 35(8):669–675.
Wittmers, Lorentz E., Joann Wallgren, Agnes Alich, Arthur C. Aufderheide, and George Rapp 1988Lead in Bone. IV. Distribution of Lead in the Human Skeleton. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal 43(6):381–391.
The authors thank individuals who supported this study, especially the Catoctin Furnace Historical Society. Kristen Pearlstein assisted in the examination of the human remains. Archaeologists Robert Wanner and Jane Seiter advised on the content of the manuscript. Mike Chapman (Augustana College), Joan Coltrain, (University of Utah) and Jeff Speakman (Center for Applied Isotope Studies) processed bone for the stable-isotope studies. Richard Jantz completed a morphometric study of the crania. Lee-Ann Hayek (Smithsonian Institution) provided a review of the statistical analyses. Funding for the analysis was supported by a Maryland Heritage Areas Authority Non-Capital Grant. Thanks are also extended to the reviewers of this article, who contributed their time and attention.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bruwelheide, K.S., Owsley, D.W., Barca, K.G. et al. Restoring Identity to People and Place: Reanalysis of Human Skeletal Remains from a Cemetery at Catoctin Furnace, Maryland. Hist Arch (2019) doi:10.1007/s41636-019-00214-7
- African American
- heavy metals