Validation of the Flourishing Scale for Married Employees in the Information Technology-Enabled Services Sector in India
- 302 Downloads
The Flourishing Scale (FS) created by Diener et al., Social Indicators Research, 97, 143–156 (2010) is a measurement that assesses eudaimonic well-being in terms of psychological functioning. In this study, the psychometric properties of the scale were explored by using three Indian samples (I: n = 262; II: n = 347; III: n = 508) each comprising of married individuals belonging to the Information Technology/Information Technology Enabled Services (IT/ITES) sector. Reliability analysis and a multigroup confirmatory factorial analysis (MGCFA) were carried out on the FS, and the validity was examined by analyzing their correlations with other measures of well-being. Results showed adequate psychometric properties for the scale, and convergent validity with subjective well-being measures. Results also demonstrated the unidimensional structure of the FS corroborating earlier findings. The MGCFA of the scale evidenced an invariant structure. In conclusion, the FS behaved consistently with the original study by Diener et al. and was found to be appropriate for use in assessing eudaimonic well-being among service sector employees in India. Further, due to its short length, the survey may be leveraged to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions of well-being programs by HR practitioners and may also be used in future studies on well-being.
KeywordsPsychological well-being Flourishing Eudaimonia Satisfaction India Validation
- Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, G. J., & Klesh, J. (1983). Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizational members. In S. Seashore, E. Lawler III, P. Mirvis, & C. Cammann (Eds.), Assessing organizational change: A guide to methods, measures, and practices (pp. 71–138). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.Google Scholar
- Cummins, R. A., Gullone, E., & Lau, A. L. (2002). A model of subjective well-being homeostasis: The role of personality. In The universality of subjective wellbeing indicators (pp. 7–46). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Diener, E., & Lucas, R. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 213–229). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Dunn, M. G., & O'brien, K. M. (2013). Work–family enrichment among dual-earner couples: Can work improve our family life? Journal of Ccounseling Psychology, 60(4), 634.Google Scholar
- Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In P. A. David & M. W. Reder (Eds.), Nations and households in economic growth (pp. 89–125). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Gambhirananda, S. (1986). Taittiriya upanishad. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.Google Scholar
- Gefen, D., & Straub, D. (2005). A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS-Graph: Tutorial and annotated example. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 16. http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol16/iss1/5.
- Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (2000). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Swindon, Wiltshire, UK: NFER Nelson.Google Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Howell, A. J., & Buro, K. (2015). Measuring and predicting student well-being: further evidence in support of the flourishing scale and the scale of positive and negative experiences. Social Indicators Research, 121(3), 903–915.Google Scholar
- Indian Brand Equity Foundation (2017). Indian Brand Equity Foundation Report. https://www.ibef.org/industry/information-technology-india.aspx. Accessed 10 July 2017.
- Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Analyzing mixed independent variables: The actorpartner interdependence model. Dyadic Ddata Analysis, 144–184.Google Scholar
- Page, K. M., & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2013). The working for wellness program: RCT of an employee well-being intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 1007–1031.Google Scholar
- Perrow, C. (1986). Economic theories of organization. Theory and Society, 15(1–2), 11–45.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.). Handbook of positive psychology, (pp. 3-9). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410.Google Scholar
- Upadhya, C., & Vasavi, A. (2006). Work, culture, and sociality in the Indian IT Industry: A sociological study (final report submitted to the IDPAD). Bangalore: National Institute of advanced studies. http://www.nias.res.in/publication/work-culture-and-sociality-indian-information-technology-it-industry-sociological-study. Accessed 10 June 2017.
- Vaid, M. (2009). Exploring the lives of youth in the BPO sector: Findings from a study in Gurgaon. Issue 10 of working paper (health and population innovation fellowship programme). New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
- Wang, I. M., Sinclair, R. R., & Tetrick, L. E. (2012). How to think about and measure psychological well-being. In M. Wang, R. R. Sinclair, & I. E. Tetric (Eds.), Research methods in occupational health psychology. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ravert, R. D., Williams, M. K., Agocha, V. B., … Donnellan, M. B. (2010). The questionnaire for eudaimonic well-being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 41–61.Google Scholar