Journal of Iberian Geology

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 625–640 | Cite as

Tungsten mineralization associated with the Argemela microgranite (Central Portugal)

  • L. LimaEmail author
  • A. Guedes
  • F. Noronha
Research Paper


The Argemela microgranite is a late- to post-tectonic granite (305–300 Ma), and is an example of a late Variscan small intrusion of W-enriched granite with magmatic cassiterite, columbite and Li-micas. The occurrence of this type of magmatism is very rare in the European Variscan Belt. A quarry where this microgranite intrusion has been exploited for ceramic applications revealed the border of an aplite cross-cut by two types of quartz veinlets: type I with quartz, K-feldspar ± amblygonite; and type II with quartz and wolframite mineralization, thus allowing the study of a W-mineralization which is intimately associated with a highly-differentiated magmatic system. In this work, detailed mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusion studies are presented, in an attempt to reconstruct the P–T-x conditions responsible for different stages of fluid evolution. We have found magmatic and hydrothermal aqueous-carbonic fluids (H2O–CO2–CH4–N2–NaCl) associated with the late crystallization of the Argemela microgranite, and also responsible for the later formation of the two types of veinlets. The Argemela fluid system is characterized by an increase of CO2 in the volatile phase and a decrease in salinity throughout the transition from magmatic to hydrothermal stage. Most importantly, the late stages correspond to the period of tungsten deposition at pressures below 100 MPa.


Wolframite Magmatic-hydrothermal Fluid inclusions Argemela microgranite Portugal 


El microgranito de Argemela es un granito tardío o post-tectónico (305 a 300 Ma), este es un ejemplo de una pequeña intrusión Varisca de un granito enriquecido con W, casiterita magmática, columbita y Li-micas. La aparición de este tipo de magmatismo es muy rara en el Cinturón Varisco europeo. Una cantera en la que esta intrusión de microgranito ha sido explotada para aplicaciones cerámicas, reveló en el entorno una aplita cortada transversalmente por dos tipos de venas de cuarzo: El tipo I con cuarzo, feldespato K ± ambliogonita; y el tipo II con mineralización de cuarzo y wolframita, esto permite el estudio de una mineralización de W que está íntimamente asociada con un sistema magmático altamente diferenciado. En este trabajo se presentan estúdios detallados de mineralogía, geoquímica y de inclusiones fluidas en un intento de reconstruir las condiciones de P yT-x responsables de las diferentes etapas de la evolución de los fluidos. Hemos encontrado fluidos acuosos carbónicos magmáticos e hidrotermales (H2O-CO2-CH4-N2-NaCl) asociados con la cristalización tardía del microgranito de Argemela, y también responsables de la formación posterior de dos tipos de venas. El sistema de fluidos de Argemela se caracteriza por un aumento de CO2 en la fase volátil y una disminución de la salinidad en la transición de la etapa magmática a la hidrotermal. Lo más importante es que las etapas tardías corresponden al período de deposición del tungsteno a presiones inferiores a 100 MPa.

Palabras clave

volframita magmático-hidrotermal inclusiones fluidas microgranito de Argemela Portugal 



The authors acknowledge the POCTEP-Interreg Project 0284_ESMIMET_3_E “Development of exploitation environmental and energy techniques in metallic mining” ESMIMET for the financial support. The author Luís Lima has a Grant financed by POCTEP-Interreg Project 0284_ESMIMET_3_E “Development of exploitation environmental and energy techniques in metallic mining”. The authors also acknowledge the “Instituto de Ciências da Terra (ICT), Polo Porto” for making the laboratories available for carrying out the studies presented in this paper. The authors would like to acknowledge the anonymous reviewers and to the editor, Dr. Teresa Ubide, for their contribution to improve the manuscript.

Supplementary material

41513_2019_113_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 25 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento de Território, Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento de TerritórioInstituto de Ciências da Terra, Polo Porto, Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal

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