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Journal of Iberian Geology

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 257–291 | Cite as

Analysis of diversity, stratigraphic and geographical distribution of isolated theropod teeth from the Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal

  • Elisabete MalafaiaEmail author
  • Fernando Escaso
  • Pedro Mocho
  • Alejandro Serrano-Martínez
  • Angelica Torices
  • Mário Cachão
  • Francisco Ortega
Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

Isolated theropod teeth are abundant in the Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin and are an important source to reconstruct the diversity of this group as well as its geographic and stratigraphic distribution. However, reliably identification of isolated teeth is complex, especially for those morphotypes related to poorly represented groups. Herein a set of isolated theropod teeth collected in different sites from the Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin ranging from the late Kimmeridgian to late Tithonian in age are described and discussed.

Methods

These teeth were grouped in seventeen distinct morphotypes based first on morphology and comparative anatomy. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed in order to assign each morphotype to a certain taxon.

Results

The current analysis shows the presence of several groups of theropods such as Ceratosaurus, Torvosaurus, and Allosaurus beside morphotypes identified as belonging to indeterminate Megalosauroidea and Allosauroidea and morphotypes tentatively assigned to Tyrannosauroidea, Dromaeosauridae, and Richardoestesia. This faunal composition, namely the presence of a non-megalosaurid megalosauroid possibly related to the piatnitzkysaurid Marshosaurus, indicates a higher diversity of theropods in the Late Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin than previously known, based on more complete specimens. Results obtained from this analysis partially agree with previous studies of other collections with isolated theropod teeth from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal such as those of the Guimarota coal mine. However, the presence of velociraptorine dromaeosaurids, compsognathids, and troodontids reported from this site could not be confirmed in the sample herein analyzed. This analysis also indicates a great similarity of the theropod faunas from the Late Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin and other European chronocorrelative localities such as those from Spain and Germany.

Keywords

Multivariate analysis Ceratosauria Megalosauroidea Allosauroidea Coelurosauria 

Resumen

Objetivo

Los dientes aislados de dinosaurios terópodos son un registro abundante en el Jurásico Superior de la cuenca lusitánica pudiendo llegar ser una importante contribución para comprender la diversidad y la distribución geográfica y estratigráfica de estas faunas. Sin embargo, la identificación de dientes aislados y su asignación a un determinado taxón es compleja, especialmente en el caso de morfotipos relacionados con grupos poco conocidos en el mismo registro. En este estudio se presenta el resultado del análisis de un conjunto de dientes aislados de terópodos procedentes de diferentes localidades de la cuenca lusitánica datadas en el Jurásico Superior, concretamente entre el Kimmeridgiense superior y el Tithoniense superior.

Métodos

Estos dientes se han agrupado en diecisiete morfotipos a partir del estudio morfológicco y de la comparación anatómica. Se realizaron análisis estadístico multivariante para comprobar la identificación de cada morfotipo.

Resultados

El resultado de este análisis ha revelado una gran diversidad de grupos de terópodos que incluye Ceratosaurus, Torvosaurus y Allosaurus además de morfotipos identificados como pertenecientes a Megalosauroidea indet. y Allosauroidea indet. Además, se han reconocido también algunos morfotipos preliminarmente asignados a Tyrannosauroidea, Dromaeosauridae y Richardoestesia. Esta composición faunística, tal como la presencia de non-megalosauridos megalosauroides posiblemente relacionado al piatnitzkysaurido Marshosaurus, sugiere una mayor diversidad de terópodos de la que se conoce actualmente a partir de ejemplares más completos. Los resultados obtenidos soportan, en parte, algunos estudios previos de otras colecciones con dientes aislados del Jurásico Superior de Portugal, como por ejemplo los de la mina de Guimarota. No obstante, la presencia de terópodos velociraptorinos, compsognathidos y troodontidos, citados en Guimarota, no se ha podido confirmar en la muestra estudiada. Este análisis indica también una grande semejanza de las faunas de terópodos del Jurásico Superior de la cuenca lusitánica y de otras localidades sincrónicas europeas como por ejemplo de España y Alemania.

Palabras clave

Análisis multivariante Ceratosauria Megalosauroidea Allosauroidea Coelurosauria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by SFRH/BD/84746/2012 PhD scholarship, financed by the “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia” (Portugal). Individual Grants to E.M. visits for review collections were financed by the Jurassic Foundation, Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento [Grant Number L07-V-22/2010] and Synthesys [Grant Number GB-TAF-2160 and FR-TAF-4911]. The study was also supported by a protocol between CMTV and SHN. We thank to the reviewers D. Weishampel, C. Hendrickx and O. Gerke for the comments and suggestions to the paper. We also thank S. Pereira for photographs of some elements, J. J. Santos and N. Pimentel for field assistance, and for allow accessing specimens to B. C. Silva (SHN, Portugal), R. Castanhinha and C. Tomás (ML, Portugal), V. Santos (MUHNAC, Portugal), E. Espilez and R. Royo-Torres (Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis, Spain), E. D. Berenguer and J. I. Canudo (Museo Paleontológico de Zaragoza, Spain), R. Allain (MNHN, France), L. Chiappe (NHMLAC, USA), L. Ivy and K. Carpenter (DMNH, USA), R. Scheetz and B. Britt (BYU, USA), M. Getty, M. Loewen, and R. Irmis (NHMU, USA), D. Chure (DINO, USA), S. Chapman (NHMUK, UK), P. Jeffery (OUMNH, UK), and T. Schossleitner and D. Schwarz (MfN).

Supplementary material

41513_2017_21_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 29 kb) Table 1S Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the specimens studied in this work
41513_2017_21_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (39 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 38 kb) Table 2S Morphometric variables of the isolated teeth studied in this work. All measurements are in millimeters. * Estimated measurement
41513_2017_21_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (29 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 29 kb) Table 3S Results of the DFA analysis based on the complete dataset of Gerke and Wings (2016). Prob, probability; Res, resolution
41513_2017_21_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (33 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 33 kb) Table 4S Results of the DFA analysis based on the reduced dataset of Gerke and Wings (2016) and on the dataset of Hendrickx et al. (2015). The green lines mark the specimens identified to the same taxon on both analyses. Inc spec, incomplete specimens; Morph, morphotype; Prob, probability; Res, resolution; Spec, specimen

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabete Malafaia
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Fernando Escaso
    • 2
    • 4
  • Pedro Mocho
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alejandro Serrano-Martínez
    • 4
  • Angelica Torices
    • 6
  • Mário Cachão
    • 1
  • Francisco Ortega
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculdade de Ciências and Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Laboratório de Paleontologia e PaleoecologiaSociedade de História NaturalTorres VedrasPortugal
  3. 3.Museu Nacional de História Natural e da CiênciaUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Grupo de Biología EvolutivaUniversidad Nacional de Educación a DistanciaMadridSpain
  5. 5.The Dinosaur Institute, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles CountyLos AngelesUSA
  6. 6.Departamento de Ciencias HumanasUniversidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain

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