Advertisement

ADHD and Time Perception: Findings and Treatments

  • Simon Weissenberger
  • Martina Klicperova-Baker
  • Martina Vňuková
  • Jiří Raboch
  • Radek PtáčekEmail author
REVIEW
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

This mini review aims to explore the intricate connection between ADHD and time perception along with some new findings on new treatments to manage ADHD symptoms. The topic of time perception is addressed from a variety of perspectives and with an understanding that although differences in time perception are not listed among the primary symptoms of the disorder, they are of the utmost importance to understand the condition and possibly new treatment plans. We also review some of the new findings on ADHD and time perception, and look at the usefulness of certain psychometric tools like the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory recent research into educational video games and apps for managing the disorder.

Keywords

ADHD ZTPI Time perception 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Progres Q06/LF1

GAČR 18-11247S

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive function: constructing a unified theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkley, R. A., & Benton, C. M. (2013). Taking charge of adult ADHD. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barkley, R., Koplowitz, S., Anderson, T., & McMurray, M. (1997). Sense of time in children with ADHD: effects of duration, distraction, and stimulant medication. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3(4), 359–369.Google Scholar
  5. Carelli, M. G., & Wiberg, B. (2012). Time out of mind: temporal perspective in adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(6), 460–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carelli, M. G., Forman, H., & Mäntylä, T. (2008). Sense of time and executive functioning in children and adults. Child Neuropsychology, 14(4), 372–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corbett, B. A., Constantine, L. J., Hendren, R., Rocke, D., & Ozonoff. (2009). Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development. Psychiatry Research, 166, 2–3, 210–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crawford, M. R., Holder, M. D., & O’Connor, B. P. (2016). Using mobile technology to engage children with nature. Environment and Behavior, 49(9), 959–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davydenko, M., & Peetz, J. (2017). Time grows on trees: The effect of nature settings on time perception. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 54, 20–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Di Nuovo, S., Belluardo, G., Belluardo, D., Castiglia, D., Fanzone, M., Granata, S., & Notti, A. (2015). Time processing skills in typical and impaired development. Life Span and Disability, 18(2), 233–248.Google Scholar
  11. Failing, M., & Theeuwes, J. (2016). Reward alters the perception of time. Cognition, 148, 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenesy, M. C., & Lee, S. S. (2018). Executive functioning mediates predictions of youth academic and social development from parenting behavior. Developmental Neuropsychology, 43(8), 729–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frutos-Pascual, M., Zapirain, B., & Zorrilla, A. (2014). Adaptive tele-therapies based on serious games for health for people with time-management and organisational problems: preliminary results. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(1), 749–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gable, P., & Poole, B. (2012). Time flies when you’re having approach motivated fun. Psychological Science, 23, 879–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gooch, D., Snowling, M., & Hulme, C. (2011). Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawk, L. W., Fosco, W. D., Colder, C. R., Waxmonsky, J. G., Pelham, W. E., & Rosch, K. S. (2018). How do stimulant treatments for ADHD work? Evidence for mediation by improved cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1–11.Google Scholar
  17. Hurks, P. P. M., & Hendriksen, J. G. M. (2011). Child Neuropsychology, 17, 34–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. London: MacMillan Books.Google Scholar
  19. Kerns, K., McInerney, R., & Wilde, J. (2001). Time reproduction, working memory, and behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychology, 7(1), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mascheretti, S., Trezzi, V., Giorda, R., Boivin, M., Plourde, V., Vitaro, F., et al. (2017). Complex effects of dyslexia risk factors account for ADHD traits: evidence from two independent samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(1), 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McInerney, R. J., & Kerns, K. A. (2003). Time reproduction in children with ADHD: motivation matters. Child Neuropsychology, 9(2), 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McNamara, C. G., & Dupret, D. (2017). Two sources of dopamine for the hippocampus. Trends in Neurosciences, 40(7), 383–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mehta, M. A., Owen, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., Mavaddat, N., Pickard, J. D., & Robbins, T. W. (2000). Methylphenidate enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20(6), RC65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nigg, J. (2013). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review., 33(2), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Orkibi, H. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 38(2), 219–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Powell, L., Parker, J., Robertson, N., & Harpin, V. (2017). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is there an app for that? Suitability assessment of apps for children and young people with ADHD. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 5(10), 1–11.Google Scholar
  27. Rohlf, H., Jucksch, V., Gawrilow, C., Huss, M., Hein, J., Lehmkuhl, U., & Salbach-Andrae, H. (2012). Set shifting and working memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neural Transmission, 119(1), 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rubia, K., Halari, R., Christakou, A., & Taylor, E. (2009). Impulsiveness as a timing disturbance: neurocognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder during temporal processes and normalization with methylphenidate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal. Society, 364, 1919–1930.Google Scholar
  29. Settani, M., Marengo, D., Fabris, M. A., & Longobardi, C. (2018). The interplay between ADHD symptoms and time perspective in addictive social media use: A study on adolescent Facebook users. Children and Youth Services Review, 89, 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shimamura, A. P. (1995). Memory and frontal lobe function. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences (pp. 803–813). Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  31. Smith, A., Taylor, E., Warner Rogers, J., Newman, S., & Rubia, K. (2002). Evidence for a pure time perception deficit in children with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 529–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sterley, T. L., Howells, F. M., & Russell, V. A. (2013). Maternal separation increases GABA(A) receptor-mediated modulation of norepinephrine release in the hippocampus of a rat model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Brain Research., 1497, 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Taylor, A. F., & Kuo, F. (2011). Could exposure to green spaces help treat ADHD? Evidence from children’s play settings. Health and Well-Being, 3(3), 281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang, Y., Chen, X., Cui, J., & Liu, L. (2015). Testing the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the Chinese context. PsyCh Journal, 4(3), 166–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. T. (1993). Hyperactive children grown up: ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults (2nd ed.). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Weissenberger, S., Klicperova-Baker, M., Zimbardo, P., Schonova, K., Akotia, D., Kostal, J., Goetz, M., Raboch, J., et al. (2016). ADHD and present hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 2963–2971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Welsh, M., & Pennington, B. (1988). Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: views from developmental psychology. Developmental Neuropsychology, 4, 199–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wittmann, M., & van Wassenhove, V. (EDS.) (2009). The experience of time: neural mechanisms and the interplay of emotion, cognition and embodiment. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 364(1525), 1809–1813.Google Scholar
  39. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2014). Putting time in perspective: a valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application (pp. 17–55). Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Neuroscientia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryFirst Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of New York in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Institute of PsychologyCzech Academy of SciencesPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations