Advertisement

Humanistic Management Journal

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 203–220 | Cite as

Global Ethos, Leadership Styles, and Values: a Conceptual Framework for Overcoming the Twofold Bias of Leadership Ethics

  • Friedrich GlaunerEmail author
Original Research

Abstract

The philosophical nature of ethical reasoning generates different definitions of moral subjectivity. Thus any talk of leadership ethics requires not only that we confront biases regarding human nature and the purpose of leadership and business conduct, but also differing ethical approaches which may be rooted in specific cultural and religious backgrounds. Building a conceptual framework for leadership ethics which overcomes these obstacles of bias and cultural embeddedness therefore requires another approach. It can be found in the concept of the Global Ethos values. Using Kohlberg’s model of moral development, the Global Ethos values appear as a protoethical system of values with a level-six effect, a universally explicable deontological canon of ethical values below the sixth level, i.e. in the realm of hands-on management and leadership. As non-judgmental and regulative guiding principles, these values are the normative guidelines for selecting a situationally appropriate form of leadership style before and beyond any philosophical explication and rationale.

Keywords

Ethics Global ethos Leadership Leadership styles Values 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Arendt, H. 1986. Elemente und Ursprünge totalitärer Herrschaft. Vol. 1986. Piper: Munich.Google Scholar
  2. Arendt. 2011. Eichmann in Jerusalem. Ein Bericht von der Banalität des Bösen. 9th ed. Munich: Piper.Google Scholar
  3. Asch, S.E. 1955. Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American 193 (5): 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asch, S.E. 1956. Studies of Independence and conformity: I. a minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs 70 (9) Whole No. 416.Google Scholar
  5. Babiak, P., and R.D. Hare. 2006. Snakes in suits. When psychopaths go to work. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  6. Bass, B.M. 1985. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bass, B.M. 1997. Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and National Boundaries? American Psychologist 52 (2): 130–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer, J. 2006. Prinzip Menschlichkeit: Warum wir von Natur aus kooperieren. Munich/Zürich: Heyne.Google Scholar
  9. Bauer, J. 2008. Das kooperative gen. Abschied vom Darwinismus. Hamburg: Hoffmann&Campe.Google Scholar
  10. Bookchin, M. 1982. The Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. Palo Alto: Cheshire Books.Google Scholar
  11. Bookchin, M. 1995. Re-enchanting humanity: A defense of the human Spirit against Antihumanism, misanthropy, mysticism and primitivism. London/New York: Cassel.Google Scholar
  12. Burns, J.M. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  13. Burns, J.M. 2003. Transforming leadership: A new pursuit of happiness. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ciulla, Joanne B. (1995) Leadership Ethics: Mapping the Territory. Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 5 (1), pp 5-28.Google Scholar
  15. Ciulla, Joanne B. (2005) The State of Leadership Ethics and the Work that Lies Before Us. Business Ethics: A European Review Vol 14 (4),pp 323-335.Google Scholar
  16. Ciulla, Joanne B. (2011) Ethics and Effectiveness: The Nature of Good Leadership. Eds. John Antonakis and David Day, The Nature of Leadership, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 508-540.Google Scholar
  17. Ciulla, Joanne B. (2013) Set Editor (3 volumes). Leadership Ethics, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Dawes, R.H. 1980. Social Dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology 31: 163–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dawkins, R. 2006. The Selfish Gene. 30th Anniversary ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dierksmeier, C. 2013. Kant on Virtue. Journal of Business Ethics 113 (4): 597–609.Google Scholar
  21. Dierksmeier, C. 2016. Reframing economic ethics. The philosophical foundations of humanistic management. In Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  22. Dierksmeier, C., W. Amann, E.v Kimakowitz, H. Spitzeck, and M. Pirson, eds. 2011. Humanistic ethics in the age of Globality. Basingstoke: Palgrave MACMILLAN.Google Scholar
  23. Dobbs, R., Manyika, J., & Woetzel 2015. No ordinary disruption. The four global forces breaking all the trends. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  24. Duerr, H.-P. 1988. Der Mythos vom Zivilisationsprozeß. In Nacktheit und Scham, vol. 1. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  25. Duheme, P. 1978. Ziel und Struktur der Physikalischen Theorien. Hamburg: Meiner.Google Scholar
  26. Elegido, J. 2009. Business education and erosion of character. African Journal of Business Ethics 4 (1): 16–24.Google Scholar
  27. Elias, N. 1976. Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation. Soziogenetische und psychogenetische Untersuchungen. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  28. Frankl, V.E. 1994. Logotherapie und Existenzanalyse. Texte aus sechs Jahrzehnten. Berlin/München: Die Quintessenz.Google Scholar
  29. Frankl, V.E. 2004. Der Mensch vor der Frage nach dem Sinn. Eine Auswahl aus dem Gesamtwerk. Piper 17th ed. München/Zürich.Google Scholar
  30. Glauner, F. 2016. Future Viabilty, business models, and values. Strategy, business management and Economy in disruptive markets . Heidelberg, Berlin. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Glauner, F. 2017a. Values cockpits. On steering and measuring corporate cultures and values. Berlin, Heidelberg. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Glauner, F. 2017b. Compliance, global ethos and corporate wisdom: Values strategies as an increasingly critical competitive advantage. In Perspectives on philosophy of management and business ethics, series ethical Economy. Studies in economic ethics and Philosophy, ed. Jacob Dahl Rendtorff, vol. 51, 121–137. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Glauner, F. 2017c. Ethics, Values and Corporate Cultures: A Wittgensteinian Approach in Understanding Corporate Action. In Dimensional Corporate Governance: An Inclusive Approach, CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance, ed. Nicholas Capeldi, Samuel O. Idowu, and René Schmidpeter, 49–59. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glauner, F. 2018a. Innovation, business models, and catastrophe. Reframing the mental model for innovation management. Appears. In Innovation management and CSR. Social responsibility as a competitive advantage, concepts and cases, ed. Reinhard Altenburger. Heidelberg, Berlin, New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Glauner, F. 2018b. Vices, virtues, and values. A business case on Familiy Enterprise and its philosophical implications implementing humanistic management practices. To appear in Ernst von Kimakowitz, Claus Dierksmeier, Carlos Largacha, Hanna Schirovsky (eds.) Humanistic Management in Practice. Vol. II New York: PalgraveMacMillan/Springer.Google Scholar
  36. Glauner, F. 2018c. Redefining Economy: Why Shared Value is Not Enough. Appears. In Competitiveness Review Special Issue “Creating Shared Value: Restoring the Legitimacy of Business and Advancing Competitiveness”, ed. Markus Scholz, Gastón de los Reyes, and Mark Pfitzer.Google Scholar
  37. Heckhausen, H., and J. Heckhausen. 2006. Motivation und Handeln. 4th ed. Berlin/New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heidegger, M. 1984. Sein und Zeit. 15th ed. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
  39. Hersey, P. 1985. The situational leader. New York: Warner Books.Google Scholar
  40. Hersey, P., and K.H. Blanchard. 1969. Life cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal 23 (5): 26–34.Google Scholar
  41. Hersey, P., and K.H. Blanchard. 1977. Management of Organizational Behavior 3rd edition– Utilizing human resources. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Hunt, V., Layton, D., & Prince, S. 2015: Why diversity matters. McKinsey Insights, (http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/organization/why_diversity_matters).Google Scholar
  43. Ivanhoe, P.J. 2017. Oneness. East Asian conceptions of virtue, happiness, and how Wa are all connected. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jensen, M.C., and W.H. Meckling. 1976. Theory of the firm: Managerial behaviour, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics 3 (4): 305–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jensen, M.C., and W.H. Meckling. 1994. The nature of man. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 7 (2): 4–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kant, I. 1785. In Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten? Werke in sechs Bänden, ed. W. Weischedel, vol. IV, 11–102. Darmstadt: Meiner 1964.Google Scholar
  47. Kant, I. 1799. Kritik der Urteilskraft. Vol. 1974. Meiner: Hamburg.Google Scholar
  48. Kimakowitz, E., M. Pirson, H. Spitzeck, C. Dierksmeier, and W. Amann, eds. 2010. Humanistic Management in Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave MACMILLAN.Google Scholar
  49. Knights, D., & O’Leary, M. 2006. Leadership, ethics and responsibility to the other. Journal of Business Ethics 67:125–137 Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9008-6.
  50. Kohlberg, L. 1995. Die Psychologie der Moralentwicklung. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  51. Kuhn, T.S. 1996. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rd ed. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Küng, H. 1998. A global ethic fpr global politics and economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Küng, H. 2012. Handbuch Weltethos. Eine Vision und ihre Umsetzung. Munich, Zürich: Piper.Google Scholar
  54. Lewin, K., R. Lippitt, and R.K. White. 1939. Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Luhmann, N. 1985. Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. 2nd ed. Frankfurt: Suhkamp.Google Scholar
  56. Maslow, A.H. 1954. Motivation and personality. New York: Harper Row.Google Scholar
  57. Maslow, A.H. 2011. Toward a Psychology of Being. Blacksburg: Wilder.Google Scholar
  58. Maturana, H.R. 1970. Biologie der Kognition. In Erkennen: Die Organisation und Verkörperung von Wirklichkeit, ed. H. Maturana, vol. 1982, 32–80. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Viehweg.Google Scholar
  59. Maturana, H.R. 1976. Biologie der Sprache: die Epistemologie der Realität. In Erkennen: Die Organisation und Verkörperung von Wirklichkeit, ed. H. Maturana, vol. 1982, 236–271. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Viehweg.Google Scholar
  60. McClelland, D. 1961. The achieving society. Princeton: Van Nostrand.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McClelland, D. 1984. Human motivation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  62. McGregor, D. 2006. The Human Side of Enterprise. Annotated edition updated and with new commentary by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  63. Milgram, S. 1974. Obedience to authority. An experiment view. New York: Harper&Row.Google Scholar
  64. Miller, D.T. 1999. The norm of self-interest. American Psychologist 54 (12): 1053–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miner, J.B. 2005. Organizational behavior: Behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  66. Neitzel, S., and H. Welzer. 2011. Soldaten. Protokolle vom Kämpfen, Töten und Sterben. 4th ed. (Fischer) Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
  67. Pirson, M.A. 2017. Humanistic management: Protecting dignity and promoting well-being. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pirson, M.A., and P.R. Lawrence. 2010. Humanism in business - towards a paradigm shift? Journal of Business Ethics. 93 (4): 553–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rappaport, A. 1986. Creating shareholder value. The new standard for business performance. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  70. Schönherr-Mann, H.M. 2010. Globale Normen und Individuelles Handeln – Die Idee des Weltethos aus emanzipatorischer Perspektive. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.Google Scholar
  71. Seligman, M.E.P., T.A. Steen, N. Park, and C. Peterson. 2005. Positive psychology Progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist 60 (5): 410–421.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sennett, R. 2007. Die Kultur des neuen Kapitalismus. Berlin: Berliner Taschenbuch Verlag.Google Scholar
  73. Simon, H.A. 1985. Human nature in politics: The dialogue of psychology with political science. The American Political Science Review 79 (2): 293–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stogdill, R. 1974. Handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  75. Tetlock, P.E. 2000. Cognitive biases and organizational correctives: Do both disease and cure depend on the politics of the beholder? Administrative Science Quarterly 45 (2): 293–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Trompenaars, F. 1993. Riding the waves of culture. Understanding cultural diversity in business. Vol. 1995. 4th ed. London: Nicholas Brealey.Google Scholar
  77. Watzlawick, P. 1993. Wie wirklich ist die Wirklichkeit. Wahn – Täuschung – Verstehen. 21st ed. (Piper) Munich: Piper.Google Scholar
  78. Weber, M. 1921. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Vol. 1976. 5th rev. ed. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr.Google Scholar
  79. Wittgenstein, L. 1989. Werkausgabe Bd. 1. Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Philosophische Untersuchungen. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  80. Yukl, G., and D.D. Van Fleet. 1992. Theory and research on leadership in organizations. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. Marvin D. Dunnett and Leaetta M. Hough, vol. 3, 147–197. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global Ethics InstituteEberhard Karls University of TübingenTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations