INAE Letters

pp 1–17 | Cite as

Harmonizing the Water–Energy–Food Nexus in Haryana: An Exploration of Technology and Policy Options

  • Narendra K. TyagiEmail author
  • Pramod K. Joshi
Case Study


This research deals with harmonization of groundwater and the energy nexus in the state of Haryana, in the arid Trans-Gangetic plain (India), which is faced with ecologically unsustainable groundwater abstractions with significantly higher energy footprints in food production. Detailed analysis, based on secondary data from reliable sources, established that water and energy-intensive cropping system and the highly energy inefficient 0.75 million pumpsets deployed for water extraction—both facilitated by public policies—were responsible for the emerging situation. An ecologically compatible cropping pattern, which envisages reallocation of crop areas, accompanied by water and energy smart agro-hydro-technologies (zero tillage, laser land levelling, and micro-irrigation etc), reducing irrigation requirement by 9.88 billion cubic meters (BCM), and thereby eliminating the need for groundwater over draft, has been designed. Implementation of the recommended technologies reduces cost of production, enhances land productivity, and increases farmers’ income by 15–20%. Based on the results of pilot studies under ‘Agriculture Demand Side Management’ program, which had indicated scope for increasing pumping efficiencies from the existing level of 35 to 50%, introduction of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) labelled pumpsets is advocated. The suggested intervention could afford a saving of 3465 million kWh of energy, annually. In addition, these interventions would also yield a reduction of the order of 5243 million kg CO2e in GHGs, thereby harmonizing the water–energy–food nexus. Faster adaption of desired technologies by the farmers would require a relook at water, energy, and crop pricing policies.


Agro-technology Climate change Energy Reallocation 



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Copyright information

© Indian National Academy of Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Soil Salinity Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  2. 2.International Food Policy Research Institute, South AsiaNew DelhiIndia

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