Tenuazonic acid-induced change in volatile emission from rose plants and its chemometrical analysis
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This study investigated changes in volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) of rose plants (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) after treatment with tenuazonic acid (TeA). TeA is a toxin produced by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and is a key virulence factor for infection of the plants by the fungus. VOCs were collected in situ separately from intact live twigs of healthy and TeA-treated rose plants by dynamic headspace adsorption (DHSA) or from cut twigs of healthy and treated roses by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrum (GC–MS). VOC emissions changed significantly after the plants were treated with TeA based on the results obtained with both methods. GC–MS and chemometrical analysis show that the content of monoterpenes significantly increased the most, followed by ketones and alcohols, whereas sesquiterpenes decreased significantly, resulting from the induction by TeA. Twelve VOCs were emitted at significantly higher or lower levels from TeA-treated roses compared with healthy roses. After TeA treatment, the content of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone increased by 80.1% (DHSA) and 67.8% (HS-SPME) while β-elemene decreased by 84.93% (DHSA) and 71.21% (HS-SPME). Butyl acetate, allo-ocimene, decanol and tetradecanol with their relatively large contents were detected only from TeA-treated roses as early as 2–4 days after treatment with TeA. This means that theses VOCs could be used as the markers for the detection of the fungus infection in rose plants before disease symptoms become visible. The obvious temporal effects of the changes in contents of these four VOCs were also recorded. The results will help to understand the chemical mechanisms of indirect plant-mediated interactions between phytopathogens and herbivorous insects in the ternary systems.
KeywordsVolatile organic compound Rosa chinensis Tenuazonic acid GC–MS Terpenes Semiochemicals Biomarker Principal component analysis (PCA) Alternaria alternata Dynamic headspace adsorption (DHSA) Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)
This study was financially supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31560517 and 31160354), the Yunnan Provincial Scientific and Technological Program (Grant No. 2017HB031) and the open funding from Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China (Southwest Forestry University, Grant No. KLESWFU-201806).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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