Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 126, Issue 6, pp 553–563 | Cite as

Estimation of secondary metabolites of indigenous medicinal plant extracts and their in vitro and in vivo efficacy against tomato early blight disease in Pakistan

  • Sobia Chohan
  • Rashida Perveen
  • Muhammad Anees
  • Muhammad Azeem
  • Muhammad AbidEmail author
Original Article


Fifteen Pakistan’s indigenous medicinal plant extracts were investigated for various secondary metabolites and their potential against tomato early blight disease. In vitro screening of aqueous and methanolic extracts of fresh and dry plant parts was performed against Alternaria solani at 20, 40, 60 and 80% concentrations, by mycelial inhibition measurement through food poison technique. The aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum and Ocimum sanctum showed significant antifungal activity at all tested concentrations. Aqueous extract of fresh plant material was found more effective than that of dry plant material and the methanolic extracts of fresh or dry plants. Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed that the antifungal potential was directly related to the type and quantity of secondary metabolites. The highest phenolics were recorded from A. indica (56.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) followed by A. sativum (54.25 mg GAE/g) and O. sanctum (53.38 mg GAE/g), respectively. The aqueous extracts of fresh A. indica, A. sativum and O. sanctum were also found effective when applied to plants grown in greenhouse and field. A. indica extracts reduced disease incidence to 62.32%, in the greenhouse increasing the yield up to 138 g/plant over control (94.33 g/plant), while in the field experiment A. sativum showed highest reduction in disease incidence to 77.42% with an increasing yield up to 3.70 t/ha compared to control (2.43 t/ha). The results of this study indicate that aqueous extracts of fresh A. indica, A. sativum and O. sanctum have great potential to be used to control early blight disease of tomato in the field.


Plant extracts Early blight Solanum lycopersicum Alternaria solani Phenolic compounds Fungal inhibition 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest, and the manuscript has not been submitted to any other journal for consideration.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyKohat University of Science and TechnologyKohatPakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryCOMSATS University IslamabadAbbottabadPakistan

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