Insect deterrent activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of landrace maize and determination of active compounds against Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
- 42 Downloads
The present work was carried out to gain insight into the chemical defense of maize against phytophagous insects. Leaves of sixteen landrace populations were extracted with ethanol. Deterrent activity of extracts was evaluated on Spodoptera littoralis and Rhopalosiphum padi under laboratory conditions. Most of the ethanolic extracts negatively affected settling of R. padi, but only the extract Xn-69 affected feeding of S. littoralis. Active extracts were combined based on their TLC pattern. Bioassay-guided fractionation using biomass gain (ΔB) and food consumption (ΔI) of S. littoralis showed that the active fraction contained three phytosterols: sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol as the major constituents. These compounds might be responsible for the negative effects of extracts on biomass gain through the inhibition of food consumption of S. littoralis larvae. These phytosterols might provide in maize nonpreference resistance mechanism against insect pests.
KeywordsZea mays L. Native maize Host defense Plant metabolites Phytosterols
This work has been partially supported by Grant CTQ2015-64049-C3-1-R (MINECO/FEDER). The authors thank Irma L. Medina-Baizabal of Unidad de Biotecnología at CICY. Luis dos Santos had a doctoral scholarship (572787) from CONACyT, Mexico.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Farias-Rivera LA, Hernandez-Mendoza JL, Molina-Ochoa J, Pescador-Rubio A (2003) Effect of leaf extracts of teosinte, Zea diploperennis L., and a Mexican maize variety, criollo ‘Uruapeño’, on the growth and survival of the Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Fla Entomol 86:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maag D, Erb M, Bernal JS, Wolfender JL, Turlings TCJ, Glauser G (2015) Maize domestication and anti-herbivore defences: leaf-specific dynamics during early ontogeny of maize and its wild ancestors. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0135722. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135722 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- McMullen MD, Frey M, Degenhardt J (2009) Genetics and biochemistry of insect resistance in maize. In: Bennetzen JL, Hake SC (eds) Handbook of maize: it’s biology. Springer, New York, p 279Google Scholar
- Meihls LN, Handrick V, Glauser G, Barbier H, Kaur H, Haribal MM, Lipka AE, Gershenzon J, Buckler ES, Erb M, Köllner TG, Jander G (2013) Natural variation in maize aphid resistance is associated with 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucosidemethyl transferase activity. Plant Cell 25:2341–2355CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Painter RH (1951) Insect resistance in crop plants. The Macmillan Company, New York, pp 24–26Google Scholar
- Poitout S, Bues R (1974) Elevage de plusieursesepeces de Lepidopteres Noctuidae sur milieu artificiel simplifié. [Breeding of several species of Lepidoptera Noctuidae on simplifies artifical diet]. Ann Zool Ecol Anim 2:79–91Google Scholar
- Ruiz-Jiménez AL, González-Coloma A, Andrés-Yeves MF, Ruiz-Sánchez E, Heredia G, Peraza-Sánchez SR, Medina-Baizabal IL, Reys-Estebanez M, Canto-Canché B, Gamboa-Angulo M (2017) Insect deterrent and nematicidal screening of microfungi from Mexico and anti-aphid compounds from Gliomastix masseei. Rev Argent Microbiol 49:83–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ram.2016.08.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson TA, Wilson RL (2001) Leaf extracts from Peruvian maize affect larval feeding and development of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J Kans Entomol Soc 74:32–39Google Scholar
- Wiseman BR (1994) Mechanisms of maize resistance to corn earworm and fall armyworm. In: Mihm JA (ed) Insect resistant maize—recent advances and utilization. Proceedings of an international symposium on CIMMYT, pp 44–54Google Scholar