New findings on infestation and phenology of Dasineura oleae Angelini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): an emerging pest on olive trees in the Palestinian Territories
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Dasineura oleae is a gall midge on leaves and branches of olive trees. Due to the scarcity of information regarding to the infestation and phenology of D. oleae on olive trees, the objectives of this research were: (1) to study the pest status of D. oleae and its damage on olive trees, (2) to describe the life stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult, (3) to determine the life cycle duration and number of generations per year and (4) to describe the egg laying, larval development, pupation and adult emergence. Results indicated that there was an outbreak of D. oleae in the Palestinian Territories where the average rate of infestation on olive trees was 51.46% and the damage caused by the insect on leaves, branches and inflorescence of infested trees reached at an average infestation rate of 35.88, 22.70 and 26.54%, respectively. Eggs of D. oleae were laid on the lower leaf surface, and the hatched larvae penetrated the tissues underneath and induced galls in which they live and develop until the emergence of adults. D. oleae developed one generation per year in the hilly regions of Palestinian Territories and two generations in the coastal regions of these territories. A full description of the life stages has been provided for the insect. In conclusion, this study provides with new information regarding to the pest status of D. oleae, infestation and development of the insect on the different organs of olive trees. These findings are necessary for the insect management and its control.
KeywordsOlive leaf gall midge Olea europaea Life cycle duration Egg laying Pupation Adult emergence Number of generations per year
I would like to thank Dr. Marcela Skuhrava from Czech Zoological Society for identification of the insect as Dasineura oleae. Many thanks for my colleagues in the Department of Plant Production and Protection, An-Najah National University who helped in copyediting the manuscript. I would not forget to thank the anonymous reviewers who revised the manuscript and provided useful comments.
The authors collected the samples of insect then carried out the assessment of its pest status and the damage caused by the insect. They carried out the description of life stages and other aspects of infestation and development of the insect. They prepared the manuscript and revised it.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors comply with ethical standards.
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