First record of the impact of the parasitism of Cecidochares connexa (Diptera: Tephritidae) by a solitary larval ectoparasitoid in West Africa: Cause for concern?
Cecidochares connexa is currently the only effective biological control agent of Chromolaena odorata an invasive weed in West Africa. Recently, an ectoparasitoid species belonging to the Ormyrus genus was found parasitizing C. connexa in three regions of Ghana. Adult parasitoid emergence percentages varied between 16 and 21%. This raises concerns about its impact on C. connexa populations and the overall biocontrol of C. odorata. New field surveys to determine the distribution range of Ormyrus sp. and its impact on C. connexa should be quickly addressed in West Africa.
KeywordsPost-release evaluation Ormyrus sp. Stem-galling fly Chromolaena odorata West Africa
This work was supported by the German Academic Exchange Services (DAAD) through the African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science (ARPPIS), University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. We thank Gerhard Prinsloo and the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Pretoria, South Africa, for identifying the parasitoid to the genus level. We gratefully acknowledge the curator, Mr. Prempeh, of Aburi Botanical Gardens in Ghana. Special thanks to M. Adom for field and laboratory assistance.
PO and BRA designed the study, PO conducted the surveys and experiments, PO analyzed the data, PO, MD, and I wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Aigbedion-Atalor PO, Wilson DD, Eziah VY, Day MD, Paterson ID (2018b) Distribution and abundance of the stem galling fly Cecidochares connexa (Maquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a biological control agent of Chromolaena odorata (L.) (Asteraceae) in Ghana. Afr EntomolGoogle Scholar
- Aigbedion-Atalor PO, Day MD, Idemudia I, Wilson DD, Paterson ID (2018c) With or without you: stem galling of a tephritid fly reduces the vegetative and reproductive performance of the invasive weed Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae)Google Scholar
- Day MD, Bofeng I, Nabo I (2013) Successful biological control of Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) by the gall fly, Cecidochares connexa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Papua New Guinea. In: Wu Y, Johnson T, Sing S, Raghu S, Wheeler G, Pratt P, Warner K, Center T, Goolsby J, Reurdon R (eds) Proceedings of the 13th international symposium for the biological control of weeds, BCW 2011. USDA, FHTET, USA, pp 400–408Google Scholar
- Julien MH, Griffiths MW (1998) Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds. CABI Publishing, Oxford, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
- Lotfalizadeh H, Gharali B (2014) Hymenopterous parasitoids of safflower seed pests in Iran. Appl Entomol Phytopathol 82:1–11Google Scholar
- Paterson ID, Akpabey FJ (2014) The spread of Cecidochares connexa (Tephritidae) in West Africa. Chromolaena odorata Newsl 19:1–2Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. 534. https://www.R-project.org/
- Reddy GVP, Kikuchi SR, Muniappan R (2013) The impact of Cecidochares connexa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) in Guam. In: Zachariades C, Strathie LW, Day MD, Muniappan R (eds) Proceedings of the 8th international workshop on biological control and management of Chromolaena odorata and other eupatorieae, BCMCE 2010. ARC-PPRI, Nairobi, pp 307–313Google Scholar
- Uyi OU, Igbinosa IB (2013) Status of Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and its biocontrol in West Africa. In: Zachariades C, Strathie LW, Day MD, Muniappan R (eds) Proceedings of the 8th international workshop on biological control and management of Chromolaena odorata and other eupatorieae, BCMCE 2010. ARC-PPRI, Nairobi, pp 86–98Google Scholar
- Wilson CG, Widayanto EB (2002) The biological control programme against Chromolaena odorata in eastern Indonesia. In: Zachariades C, Muniappan R, Strathie LW (eds) Proceedings of the 5th international workshop on biological control and management of Chromolaena odorata, IWBCC 2002. ARC-PPRI, Pretoria, pp 53–57Google Scholar