Are synthetic volatiles, typically emitted by insect-damaged peach cultivars, navigation signals for two-spotted lady beetle (Adalia bipunctata L.) and green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea [Stephens]) larvae?
Upon herbivore attack, plants produce and emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of these compounds may be used in defensive strategy namely the attraction of the herbivores natural enemies. To increase our knowledge of aboveground-induced VOCs on beneficial organisms, we describe laboratory study on the chemotactic behavior of two-spotted lady beetle (Adalia bipunctata L.) and green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea [Stephens]) larvae toward synthetic VOCs (methyl salicylate, (E)-β-farnesene, (E)-β-ocimene, and E-nerolidol) typically emitted by insect-damaged peach cultivars. All tested VOCs influenced the behavior of both tested organisms. Our results are suggesting that VOCs can influence the movement of green lacewing larvae only for short period of time, while on the other hand two-spotted lady beetle larvae can follow the chemical signal for longer period of time. Results demonstrate a laboratory attraction of two-spotted lady beetle and the green lacewing larvae to a synthetic (E)-β-ocimene. Furthermore, our study showed a repellency of two-spotted lady beetle and the green lacewing larvae to a synthetic (E)-nerolidol, (E)-β-farnesene, and methyl salicylate.
KeywordsMethyl salicylate (E)-β-farnesene (E)-β-ocimene E-nerolidol Herbivore-induced plant volatiles Adalia bipunctata Chrysoperla carnea Attraction behavior Biological control
This work was conducted within Horticulture No. P4-0013-0481, a program funded by the Slovenian Research Agency. Part of this research was funded within Professional Tasks from the Field of Plant Protection, a program funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Food of Phytosanitary Administration of the Republic Slovenia. Special thanks are given to Nika Lokar and Jaka Rupnik for their technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Amorós-Jiménez R, Robert CAM, Marcos-García MA, Fereres A, Turlings TDJ (2015) A differential role of volatiles from conspecific and heterospecific competitors in the selection of oviposition sites by the aphidophagous hoverfly Sphaerophoria rueppellii. J Chem Ecol 41:493–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gosset V, Harmel N, Göbel C, Francis F, Haubruge E, Wathelet J-P, du Jardin P, Feussner I, Fauconnier M-L (2009) Attacks by piercing-sucking insect (Myzus persicae Sultzer) or a chewing insect (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) induce differential changes in volatile compound release and oxylipin synthesis. J Exp Bot 60:1231–1240CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Laznik Ž, Košir IJ, Rozman L, Kač M, Trdan S (2011) Preliminary results of variability in mechanical-induced volatile root-emissions of different maize cultivars. Maydica 56:343–350Google Scholar
- Zhu JW, Cossé AA, Obrycki JJ, Boo KS, Baker TC (1999) Olfactory reactions of the twelve-spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata and the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea to semiochemicals released from their prey and host plant: electroantennogram and behavioral responses. J Chem Ecol 25:1163–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar