Chemical composition, toxic and development- and reproduction-inhibiting effects of some essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) as fumigants
- 43 Downloads
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most serious pests of many crops both indoors and outdoors in south-western Turkey (Antalya). In the present study, essential oils (EOs) from five medicinal and aromatic plants [Mentha pulegium L. (Labiatae), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae), Pistacia terebinthus L., Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) and Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae)] were tested for their fumigant toxic and development- and reproduction-inhibiting effects against the pest under in vivo conditions. In the fumigant toxicity assays, newly emerged (0–24 h) adult females and larvae and 0-24-h-old eggs of the mite were exposed to four different concentrations of each EO for 12 h in separate desiccators (10 L) used as test chambers. In the development- and reproduction-inhibiting assays, newly emerged (0–24 h) female deutonymphs of the mite were separately exposed to a lower concentration (0.5 µL/L for M. pulegium, 2 µL/L for F. vulgare, 2.5 µL/L for P. terebinthus and 10 µL/L for V. agnus-castus and S. molle) of each EO in desiccators for 12 h, and then, 20 survivors from each EO were individually maintained on cotton leaf discs to obtain data on some parameters (adult emergence rate, number of eggs per female, egg-hatching rate, etc.) until there are no living individuals. The results from the study indicated that all the EOs had fumigant effect against the mite in varying degrees. M. pulegium was found to be the most toxic oil against all the biological stages tested (LC50 = 0.60 µL/L air for eggs, 0.60 µL/L air for larvae and 0.49 µL/L air for adult females), followed by F. vulgare (LC50 = 2.67 µL/L air for eggs and adult females, and 2.56 µL/L air for larvae). M. pulegium EO also had the highest development- and reproduction-inhibiting effect on the pest. Fecundity was reduced by 55.9% and egg hatching was inhibited by 29.9% in survivors of deutonymphs of T. urticae fumigated with M. pulegium EO at 0.5 µL/L air for 12 h. In the phytotoxicity assays with tomato, cucumber, Phaseolus and eggplant seedlings, scattered necrotic spots and slight chlorosis only on the young foliage of cucumber seedlings exposed to M. pulegium EO at the highest concentration for 12 h were visual symptoms of phytotoxicity. Overall results indicate that M. pulegium EO can be used in the management of T. urticae in greenhouses as a fumigant for both toxic and development- and reproduction-inhibiting effects.
KeywordsEssential oil, two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Fumigant toxicity Development- and reproduction-inhibiting effect
This research was carried out in Batı-Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute (BATEM), Antalya, TURKEY. The authors thank Dr. Ramazan Süleyman Göktürk (Department of Biology, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey) for identification of the plant species, Dr. Hilal Şahin Nadeem (Department of Food Engineering, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey) for essential oil analyses and Dr. Ömür Baysal (Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey) for critical review of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies requiring ethical approval.
- Adams RP (2007) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/spectroscopy, 4th edn. Allured Publ. Corp, Carol StreamGoogle Scholar
- Ambikadevi D, Samarjit R (1997) Chemical control of red spidermite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on okra. J Trop Agric 35:38–40Google Scholar
- Basbagci G, Erler F (2013) Evaluation of some essential oils and their major components against mushroom scatopsid flies as fumigants. Fresenius Environ Bull 22:3170–3178Google Scholar
- Bulut E, Göçmen H (2000) Pests and their natural enemies on greenhouse vegetables in Antalya. Bull OILB Srop 23:33–37Google Scholar
- Dagli F, Tunc I (2000) Resistance to tetradifon in the carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd. Integr Control Prot Crops Mediterr Clim Bull OILB Srop 23:289–294Google Scholar
- Dogan A, Erler F, Erkan M, Ates AO, Sabanci HS, Polat E (2016) Microbial-based production system: a novel approach for plant growth and pest and disease management in greenhouse-grown peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). J Agric Sci Technol 18:371–386Google Scholar
- Erler F (2007) Fumigant activity of monoterpenoids against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Integr Prot Stored Products IOBC/wprs Bull 30(2):281–285Google Scholar
- Erler F, Erdemir T, Ceylan FO, Toker C (2009) Fumigant toxicity of three essential oils and their binary and tertiary mixtures against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Fresenenius Environ Bull 18:975–981Google Scholar
- Erler F, Ates AO, Bahar Y (2013) Evaluation of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, for the control of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) under greenhouse conditions. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 23(2):233–240Google Scholar
- Esmaili M, Vojoudi S, Parsaeyan E (2013) Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of Mentha pulegium L. on adults of Callosobruchus maculatus, Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Sitophilus oryzae in laboratory conditions. Tech J Eng Appl Sci 9:732–735Google Scholar
- Hazan A, Gerson U, Tahori AS (1974) Spider mite webbing I. The production of webbing under various environmental conditions. Acarologia 16:68–84Google Scholar
- Hill DS (1983) Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd). In: Hill DS (ed) Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 501–502Google Scholar
- Ho CC, Lo CC, Chen WH (1997) Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on various crops in Taiwan. J Agric Res China 46:333–346Google Scholar
- Koul O, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS (2008) Essential oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopestic Int 4:63–84Google Scholar
- LeOra Software POLO-PC (1994) A user’s guide to probit or logit analysis. LeOra Software, Berkeley, p 28Google Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc. SAS/AF Software (1999) FRAME entry usage and reference. Version 8. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
- Singh D, Jain DC (1987) Relative toxicity of various organic solvents generally used in screening plant products for insecticidal activity against house fly Musca domestica L. Indian J Exp Biol 25:569–570Google Scholar
- Tapalov V, Zheljazkov V, Kolarov V (1991) Effect of harvesting stages on the yield of fresh material, essential oil, and planting material from Mentha piperita Huds and Mentha arvensis L. Herba Hungarica 1–2:60–67Google Scholar
- Topuz E, Erler F (2007) Bioefficacy of some essential oils against the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Fresenius Environ Bull 16:1498–1502Google Scholar
- Topuz E, Madanlar N, Erler F (2012) Evaluation of fumigant toxicity of Mentha pulegium essential oil against Tetranychus cinnabarinus under greenhouse conditions. Fresenius Environ Bull 21:2739–2745Google Scholar
- Wu KM, Liu XC, Qin XQ, Luo GQ (1990) Investigation of carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) resistance to insecticides. Acta Agriculturae Boreali Sinica 5:117–123Google Scholar