Reaching the Latino Population: a Brief Conceptual Discussion on the Use of Telehealth to Address Healthcare Disparities for the Large and Growing Population
Latinos collectively rank as the largest ethnic minority population in the USA, with estimates suggesting continued growth into the future. Despite the Latino population being identified as a demographic in need of greater medical and mental health care, a lack of adequate services, as well as underutilization, persists. Specifically, local availability of services, language barriers, transportation issues, health insurance coverage, immigration status, and acculturation levels are among the many challenges precluding Latinos from receiving appropriate care. Telehealth has been suggested as a novel means of addressing recognized disparities, specifically for Latinos who have been indicated as a population with greater utilization of the Internet and associated technologies than other population groups. As such, the purpose of this conceptual discussion is to briefly detail the unique possibilities that the integration of technology can hold for Latino-focused medical and mental health care. Opportunities for improved education, prompting of recommendation usage, monitoring of vitals, and application of other direct treatments are discussed in relation to the most common medical and mental health issues faced by Latinos.
KeywordsTelehealth Telemedicine Latino Disparity Intervention
- Adames, H. Y., & Chavez-Dueña, N. Y. (2017). Cultural foundations and interventions in Latino/a mental health. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Alcántara, C., Li, X., Wang, Y., Canino, G., & Alergría, M. (2016). Treatment moderators and effectiveness of engagement and counseling for Latinos intervention on worry reduction in a low-income primary care sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(11), 1016–1022. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Alegría, M., Chatterji, P., Wells, K., Cao, Z., Chen, C., Takeuchi, D., … Meng, X. (2008). Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 59(11), 1264–1272. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.11.1264.
- Alkhaldi, G., Modrow, K., Hamilton, F., Pal, K., Ross, J., & Murray, E. (2017). Promoting engagement with a digital health intervention (HeLP-diabetes) using email and text message prompts: Mixed-methods study. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 6(2), e14. https://doi.org/10.2196/imjr.6952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Badger, T. A., Segrin, C., Hepworth, J. T., Pasvogel, A., Weihs, K., & Lopez, A. M. (2013). Telephone-delivered health education and interpersonal counseling improve quality of life for Latinas with breast cancer and their supportive partners. Psycho-Oncology, 22(5), 1035–1042. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bakhshaie, J., Hanna, A. E., Viana, A. G., Garza, M., Valdivieso, J., Ochoa-Perez, M., Lemaire, C., Cardoso, J. B., Rogers, A. H., Mayorga, N. A., Bogiaizian, D., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2018). Acculturative stress and mental health among economically disadvantaged Spanish-speaking Latinos in primary care: The role of anxiety sensitivity. Psychiatry Research, 261, 421–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Balabanis, G., & Reynolds, N. L. (2001). Consumer attitudes towards multi-channel retainers’ web sties! The role of involvement, brand attitude, internet knowledge and visit duration. Journal of Business Strategies, 18(2), 105–132.Google Scholar
- Bauml, J., Pitschel-Walz, G., Volz, A., Luscher, S., Rentrop, M., Kissling, W., & Jahn, T. (2016). Psychoeducation improves compliance and outcome in schizophrenia without an increase of adverse side effects: A 7-year follow-up of the Munich PIP-study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(Supplement1), S62–S70. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brijanath, B., Protheroe, J., Mahtani, K. R., & Antoniades, J. (2016). Do web-based mental health literacy interventions improve the mental health literacy of adult consumers? Results from a systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(6), e165. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Hispanic health: A la Buena salud – to good health! CDC Vitalsigns. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/pdf/2015-05-vitalsigns.pdf.
- Clayman, M. L., Manganello, J. A., Viswanath, K., Hesse, B. W., & Arora, N. K. (2010). Providing health messages to Hispanics/Latinos: Understanding the importance of language, trust in health information sources, and media use. Journal of Health Communication, 15(Suppl 3), 252–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.522697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davis, R. E., Cole, S. M., McKenney-Shubert, S. J., Jones, S. J., & Peterson, K. E. (2017). An exploration of how Mexican American WIC mothers obtain information about behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 49(3), 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2016.10.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dwright-Johnson, M., Aisenburg, E., Golinelli, D., Hong, S., O’Brien, M., & Ludman, E. (2011). Telephone-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for Latino patients living in rural areas: A randomized pilot study. Psychiatric Services, 62(8), 936–942. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.62.8.pss6208_0936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gellis, Z. D., Kenaley, B. L., & Have, T. T. (2014). Integrated telehealth care for chronic illness and depression in geriatric home care patients: The integrated telehealth education and activation of mood (I-TEAM) study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(5), 889–895. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hanauer, D. A., Wentzell, K., Laffel, N., & Laffel, L. M. (2009). Computerized automated reminder diabetes system (CARDS): E-mail and sms cell phone text messaging reminders to support diabetes management. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 11(2), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2008.0022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hunkeler, E., Hargreaves, W. A., Fireman, B., Terdiman, J., Meresman, J. F., Porterfield, Y., … Taylor, C. B. (2012). A web-delivered care management and patient self-management program for recurrent depression: A randomized trial. Psychiatric Services, 63(11), 1063–1071. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.005332011.
- Jacobs, R. J., Caballero, J., Ownby, R. L., & Kane, M. N. (2014). Development of a culturally appropriate computer-delivered tailored internet-based health literacy intervention for Spanish-dominant Hispanics living with HIV. BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making, 14(103), 103. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-014-0103-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Keyes, K. M., Martins, S. S., Hartzenbuehler, M. L., Blanco, C., Bates, L. M., & Hasin, D. S. (2012). Mental health service utilization for psychiatric disorders among Latinos living in the United States: The role of ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity, and language/social preferences. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 383–394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0323-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kunz, S., Ingram, M., Piper, R., Ochoa, S., Sander, A., Navarro, C., & McKenzie, S. (2016). The Vivir Mejor! Consortium: A rural, US-Mexico collaborative model to prevent and treat diabetes. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(4), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2016.0188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Militello, L., Melnyk, B. M., Hekler, E. B., Small, L., & Jacobonson, D. (2016). Automated behavioral text messaging and face-to-face intervention for parents of overweight or obese preschool children: Results from a pilot study. JMIR mHealth and UHealth, 4(1), e21. https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.4398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mozaffarian, D., Benjamin, E. J., Go, A. S., Arnett, D. K., Blaha, M. J., Cushman, M., … Turner, M. B. (2015). Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2016 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 133, e38-e360. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000350.
- National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2018). Latino mental health. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/Find-Support/Diverse-Communities/Latino-Mental-Health
- Nielsen, J. D. J., Wall, W., & Tucker, C. M. (2016). Testing a model with Latino patients that explains the links among patient-perceived provider cultural sensitivity, language preference, and patient treatment adherence. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 3(1), 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-015-0114-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pew Research Center. (2016). Digital divide narrows for Latinos as more Spanish speakers and immigrants go online. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2016/07/20/digital-divide-narrows-for-latinos-as-more-spanish-speakers-and-immigrants-go-online/.
- Quinn, C. C., Shardell, M. D., Terrin, M. L., Barr, E. A., Ballew, S. H., & Gruber-Baldini, A. L. (2011). Cluster-randomized trial of a mobile phone personalized behavioral intervention for blood glucose control. Diabetes Care, 34(9), 1934–1942. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-0366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shattell, M. M., Hamilton, D., Starr, S. S., Jenkins, C. J., & Hinderliter, N. A. (2008). Mental health service needs of a Latina population: A community-based participatory research project. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29(4), 351–370. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840801904316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stolz, T., Schulz, A., Krieger, T., Vincent, A., Urech, A., Moser, C., … Berger, T. (2018). A mobile app for social anxiety disorder: A three-arm randomized controlled trial comparing mobile and pc-based guided self-help interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(6), 493–504. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043249.2018.1495519.
- Suárez-Orozco, M. M., & Paez, M. (2008). Introduction: The research agenda. In M. M. Suarez-Orozco & M. M. Paez (Eds.), Latinos remaking American (pp. 1–37). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Turner-McGrievy, G. M. (2013). Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 20(3), 513–518. https://doi.org/10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Uebelacker, L. A., Marootian, B. A., Tigue, P., Haggarty, R., Primack, J. M., & Miller, I. W. (2011). Telephone depression care management for Latinos Medicaid health plan members. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(9), 678–683. https://doi.org/10.1097/nnd.0b013e318229d100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- United States Census Bureau. (2017). Facts for features: Hispanic heritage month 2017. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2017/hispanic-heritage.html.
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity: A supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services.CrossRefGoogle Scholar