Spatial Information Research

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 605–613 | Cite as

Evaluating land-use plan using conformance-based approach in Adama city, Ethiopia

  • Dejene Tesema BultiEmail author
  • Negera Dinsa Sori


Urban land-use plan is regarded as a useful tool to achieve urban sustainable development. However, presently it is unclear that how well the Plan is being implemented and major factors contribute to the variation of its implementation in Adama city, Ethiopia. This research examines the extent to which Land-use plan of Adama city functioned from 2004 to 2014 has guided and controlled all spatial developments during planning period by measuring the degree to which actual land-use outcomes over a 10-year period conform to the Plan intention. Land-uses of the City as of 2004 and 2014 are mapped; conforming, nonconforming, and unfulfilled developments are identified through spatial overlay analysis in geographic information system environment; effectiveness of boundary containment and proposed land sufficiency are explored. The findings demonstrate that although the Plan proposed reasonable area, it has met difficulties to control and guide new spatial developments of housing land-uses followed by social services and total urban growth. The limitation is due to combined result of geographic variables, absence of regular monitoring and evaluation, lack of commitment, and political leadership influence. The study would support sustainable spatial policy and direction of spatial development with respect to sustainable urban environment.


Land use planning Urban planning Conformance based approach GIS Plan evaluation 



This research is granted by Adama Science and Technology University. The findings and opinions reported are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the funding organization.


  1. 1.
    Oliveira, V., & Pinho, P. (2009). Evaluating plans, processes and results. Planning Theory & Practice, 10(1), 35–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oliveira, V., & Pinho, P. (2010). Evaluation in urban planning: Advances and prospects. Journal of Planning Literature, 24(4), 343–361.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loh, C. G. (2011). Assessing and interpreting non-conformance in land-use planning implementation. Planning Practice & Research, 26, 271–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander, E. R. (2006). Evaluation in planning: Evolution and prospects. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baum, H. (2001). How should we evaluate community initiatives. Journal of the American Planning Association, 67, 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scriven, M. (1967). The methodology of evaluation. In R. W. Tyler, R. M. Gagnë, & M. Scriven (Eds.), Perspectives of curriculum evaluation (pp. 39–83). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Snyder, B. L., & Coglianese, C. (2005). Measuring progress: Program evaluation of environmental policies. Environment, 47(2), 22–39.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hockings, M., Holton, S., & Dudley, N. (2000). Evaluating effectiveness: A framework for assessing the management of protected areas Adrian Phillips Series. Gland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carmona, M., & Sieh, L. (2008). Performance measurement in planning towards a holistic view. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26, 428–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tian, L., & Shen, T. (2007). Evaluation of plan implementation in the transitional China: A case of Guangzhou City Master Plan. In 43rd ISOCARP Congress. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laurian, L., Crawford, J., Day, M., Kouwenhoven, P., et al. (2010). Evaluating the outcomes of plans: Theory, practice, and methodology. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2010(37), 740–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Merga Mekonnen (2012). Evaluation of land use planning and implementation with respect to environmental issues in Sululta town. M.Sc Thesis in environmental planning and landscape design. Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City Development/EiABC/, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yohannes Dukale (2012). Assessment of urban plan and design implementation and management in Ethiopian secondary towns: The case of Dilla. M.Sc thesis in environmental planning and landscape design. Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City Development/EiABC/Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lunt, N., Davidson, C., & McKegg, K. (2003). Evaluating policy and practice: A New Zealand reader. Auckland: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berke, P., Backhurst, M., Laurian, L., Day, M., Crawford, J., Ericksen, N., et al. (2006). What makes plan implementation successful? An evaluation of local plans and implementation practices in New Zealand. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 33, 581–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Day, M., Crawford, J., Kouwenhoven, P., Laurian L., Mason, G., Ericksen, N. (2008). Achieving anticipated environmental outcomes: How effective is the District Plan? Report on a methodological pilot on the evaluation of plan outcomes with regard to water quality in Papakura District’’, PUCM RMA Report number 3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laurian, L., Day, M., Backhurst, M., Berke, P., Ericksen, N., Crawford, J., et al. (2004). What drives plan implementation? Plans, planning agencies and developers. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 47, 555–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laurian, L., Day, M., Berke, P., Ericksen, N., Backhurst, M., Crawford, J., et al. (2004). Evaluating plan implementation: A conformance-based methodology. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70, 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alexander, E. R., & Faludi, A. (1989). Planning and plan implementation: Notes on evaluation criteria. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 16, 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Faludi, A., & Valk, V. (1994). Rule and order: Dutch planning doctrine in the twentieth century. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mastop, H., & Faludi, A. (1997). Evaluation of strategic plans: The performance principle. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 24, 815–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alterman, R., & Hill, M. (1978). Implementation of Urban land use plans. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 44(3), 274–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nelson, A. C., & Moore, T. (1993). Assessing urban growth management: The case of Portland, Oregon, the USA’s largest urban growth boundary. Land Use Policy, 10(4), 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bengston, D. N., Fletcher, J. O., & Nelson, K. C. (2004). Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: Policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States. Landscape and urban planning, 69(2), 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Couch, C., & Karecha, J. (2006). Controlling urban sprawl: Some experiences from Liverpool. Cities, 23(5), 353–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang, J., & Zhou, J. X. (2007). The failure and success of greenbelt program in Beijing. Urban forestry & urban greening, 6(4), 287–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adama Science and Technology University (ASTU) (2016). History of Adama City from its foundation to present (1919–2015).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Han, H. Y., Lai, S. K., Dang, A. R., Tan, Z. B., & Wu, C. F. (2009). Effectiveness of urban construction boundaries in Beijing: An assessment. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 10(9), 1285–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bhatta, B. (2010). Analysis of Urban growth and sprawl from remote sensing data. Advances in Geographic Information Science. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-05299-6_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brody, S. D., Highfield, W. E., & Thornton, Sara. (2005). Planning at the urban fringe: An examination of the factors influencing nonconforming development patterns in southern Florida. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 33, 75–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yang, X., & Lo, C. P. (2003). Modeling urban growth and landscape change for Atlanta metropolitan region. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17(5), 463–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhong, T., Mitchell, B., & Huang, X. (2014). Success or failure: Evaluating the implementation of China’s National General Land Use Plan (1997–2010). Habitat International, 44, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Spatial Information Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureAdama Science and Technology UniversityAdamaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations