Advertisement

Interspecies Scaling in Blast Pulmonary Trauma

  • Garrett W. Wood
  • Matthew B. Panzer
  • Courtney A. CoxEmail author
  • Cameron R. Bass
Original Paper

Abstract

The increased frequency of blast exposure from improvised explosive devices in military settings and terrorist bombings in civilian settings has led to extensive investigation of blast trauma. Thousands of tests have been conducted in animal models of blast trauma across a large range of body size. Experimental results are often compared without consideration of interspecies scaling. A dataset of published fatality data from 4193 tests using 5 different large and small blast trauma model species was compiled to assess interspecies scaling and pulmonary fatality risk. Simultaneously, an overpressure duration interspecies scaling based on allometric principles was optimized to create a common fatality risk model scaled for species. A two-variable nonlinear logistic regression model was used to describe fatality risk. Minimization of the loglikelihood was used to optimize the fit. A large portion of existing blast trauma data was excluded due to incomplete reporting of methodology or blast dosage. The most common species used was mice with 1828 tests followed by sheep with 1309. A nonlinear regression model with an optimized duration interspecies scaling model was used to fit the experimental data from all species. Long duration peak pressure tolerance for small and large animals was found to be approximately 90 and 145 kPa, respectively. Using a body mass ratio scaling model for overpressure duration, the duration interspecies scaling exponent was found to be α = 0.351. This study shows the importance and strong effect of interspecies scaling for blast research, especially when extrapolating the human equivalent dose from the small species commonly used.

Keywords

Animal models Blast Interspecies scaling Pulmonary trauma 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Bruce Capehart for his clinical expertise and input for this study.

Funding Information

Funding for this study was provided by the US Army MURI program (U Penn prime—W911NF-10-1-0526) partially supporting Cameron Bass (PI) and Garrett Wood.

References

  1. 1.
    Warden D (2006) Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. J Head Trauma Rehabil 21(5):398–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Champion HR, Holcomb JB, Young LA (2009) Injuries from explosions: physics, biophysics, pathology, and required research focus. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 66(5):1468–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wood GW, Panzer MB, Shridharani JK, Matthews KA, Capehart BP, Myers BS, Bass CR (2012) Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests. Inj Prev 19:19–25.  https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2011-040277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rafaels KA, Cameron R, Panzer MB, Salzar RS, Woods WA, Feldman SH, Walilko T, Kent RW, Capehart BP, Foster JB (2012) Brain injury risk from primary blast. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 73(4):895–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Richmond DR, Yelverton JT, Fletcher ER, Phillips YY (1985) Biologic response to complex blast waves. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Panzer M, Myers B, Capehart B, Bass C (2012) Development of a finite element model for blast brain injury and the effects of CSF cavitation. Ann Biomed Eng 40(7):1530–1544.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-012-0519-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bass CR, Panzer MB, Rafaels KA, Wood G, Shridharani J, Capehart B (2012) Brain injuries from blast. Ann Biomed Eng 40(1):18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iremonger M (1997) Physics of detonations and blast waves. In: Cooper G (ed) Scientific foundations of trauma. Butterworth-Heinemann, New York, pp 189–199Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bass CR, Rafaels KA, Salzar RS (2008) Pulmonary injury risk assessment for short-duration blasts. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 65(3):604–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hyde D (1991) CONWEP, conventional weapons effects program. US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooper GJ (1996) Protection of the lung from blast overpressure by thoracic stress wave decouplers. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 40(3S):105S–110SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kinney GF, Graham KJ (1985) Explosive shocks in air, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rafaels KA, Bass CR, Panzer MB, Salzar RS (2010) Pulmonary injury risk assessment for long-duration blasts: a meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 69(2):368–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Celander H, Clemedson C-J, Ericsson UA, Hultman HI (1955) The use of a compressed air operated shock tube for physiological blast research. Acta Physiol Scand 33(1):6–13.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1955.tb01188.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saljo A, Bao F, Haglid KG, Hansson HA (2000) Blast exposure causes redistribution of phosphorylated neurofilament subunits in neurons of the adult rat brain. J Neurotrauma 17(8):719–726.  https://doi.org/10.1089/089771500415454 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chavko M, Prusaczyk WK, McCarron RM (2006) Lung injury and recovery after exposure to blast overpressure. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 61(4):933–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Young AJ, Jaeger JJ, Phillips YY, Yelverton JT, Richmond DR (1985) The influence of clothing on human intrathoracic pressure during airblast. Aviat Space Environ Med 56(1):49–53Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Suneson A, Axelsson H, Hjelmqvist H, Medin A, Persson J (2000) Physiological changes in pigs exposed to a blast wave from a detonating high-explosive charge, vol 165. Association of Military Surgeons, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stahl WR (1967) Scaling of respiratory variables in mammals. J Appl Physiol 22(3):453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lindstedt SL, Calder WA III (1981) Body size, physiological time, and longevity of homeothermic animals. Q Rev Biol 56(1):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boxenbaum H (1982) Interspecies scaling, allometry, physiological time, and the ground plan of pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 10(2):201–227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01062336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bowen I, Holladay A, Fletcher E, Richmond D, White C (1965) A fluid-mechanical model of the thoraco-abdominal system with applications to blast biology. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rafaels K, Bass CR, Salzar RS, Panzer MB, Woods W, Feldman S, Cummings T, Capehart B (2011) Survival risk assessment for primary blast exposures to the head. J Neurotrauma 28(11):2319–2328.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2009.1207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Panzer MB, Bass CR, Rafaels KA, Shridharani J, Capehart BP (2012) Primary blast survival and injury risk assessment for repeated blast exposures. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 72(2):454–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bowen I, Fletcher E, Richmond D (1968) Estimate of Man’s tolerance to the direct effects of air blast. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Richmond D, Sanchez R, Goldizen V, Clare V, White C, Pratt D (1961) Biological effects of overpressure. II. A shock tube utilized to produce sharp-rising overpressures of 400 milliseconds duration and its employment in biomedical experiments. Aerospace Med 32(11):997Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Celander H, Clemendson C-J, Ericsson UA, Hultman HE (1955) A study on the relation between the duration of a shock wave and the severity of the blast injury produced by it. Acta Physiol Scand 33(1):14–18.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1955.tb01189.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Richmond D, Goldizen V, Clare V, Pratt D, Sherping F, Sanchez R, Fischer C, White C (1962) The biologic response to overpressure. III. Mortality in small animals exposed in a shock tube to sharprising overpressures of 3 to 4 msec duration. Aerospace Med 33:1–27Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cernak I, Merkle AC, Koliatsos VE, Bilik JM, Luong QT, Mahota TM, Xu L, Slack N, Windle D, Ahmed FA (2011) The pathobiology of blast injuries and blast-induced neurotrauma as identified using a new experimental model of injury in mice. Neurobiol Dis 41(2):538–551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2010.10.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Richmond D, Goldizen V, Clare V, White C (1962) The overpressure-duration relationship and lethality in small animals. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuqueruqeGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clifford C, Jaeger J, Moe J, Hess J (1984) Gastrointestinal lesions in lambs due to multiple low-level blast overpressure exposure. Mil Med 149(9):491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Richmond DR, Damon EG, Bowen IG, Fletcher ER, White CS (1966) Air-blast studies with eight species of mammals. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Damon EG, Richmond DR, White CS (1964) The effects of ambient pressure on the tolerance of mice to air blast. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Richmond DR, Damon EG, Fletcher ER, Bowen IG, White CS (1968) The relationship between selected blast-wave parameters and the response of mammals exposed to air blast. Ann N Y Acad Sci 152(1):103–121.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb11970.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Damon EG, Gaylord CS, Hicks W, Yelverton JT, Richmond DR (1966) The effect of ambient pressure on tolerance of mammals to air blast. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Richmond DR, Yelverton JT, Fletcher ER (1981) The biological effects of repeated blasts. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Damon E, Yelverton J, Luft U, Mitchell K, Jones R (1970) The acute effects of air blast on pulmonary function in dogs and sheep. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Richmond D, Yelverton J, Fletcher E, Phillips Y, Jaeger J (1982) Damage-risk criteria for personnel exposed to repeated blasts. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DASA (1965) Biomedical program 500-ton explosion. Defense Atomic Support Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rubovitch V, Ten-Bosch M, Zohar O, Harrison CR, Tempel-Brami C, Stein E, Hoffer BJ, Balaban CD, Schreiber S, Chiu W-T, Pick CG (2011) A mouse model of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Exp Neurol 232(2):280–289.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dodd K, Yelverton J, Richmond D, Morris J, Ripple G (1989) Nonauditory injury threshold for repeated intense freefield impulse noise. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Woods AS, Colsch B, Jackson SN, Post J, Baldwin K, Roux A, Hoffer B, Cox BM, Hoffer M, Rubovitch V, Pick CG, Schultz JA, Balaban C (2013) Gangliosides and ceramides change in a mouse model of blast induced traumatic brain injury. ACS Chem Neurosci 4(4):594–600.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cn300216h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mundie TG, Dodd KT, Lagutchik MS, Morris JR, Martin D (2000) Effects of blast exposure on exercise performance in sheep. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 48(6):1115–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yang Z, Wang Z, Tang C, Ying Y (1996) Biological effects of weak blast waves and safety limits for internal organ injury in the human body. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 40(3S):81S–84SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Phillips YY, Mundie TG, Yelverton JT, Richmond DR (1988) Cloth ballistic vest alters response to blast. J Trauma 28(1 Suppl):S149–S152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rice ME, Harris GT (2005) Comparing effect sizes in follow-up studies: ROC Area, Cohen’s d, and r. Law Hum Behav 29(5):615–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Crosfill ML, Widdicombe JG (1961) Physical characteristics of the chest and lungs and the work of breathing in different mammalian species. J Physiol 158(1):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1961.sp006750 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    White CS, Jones RK, Damon EG, Fletcher ER, Richmond DR (1971) The biodynamics of air blast. Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, AlbuquerqueCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garrett W. Wood
    • 1
  • Matthew B. Panzer
    • 2
  • Courtney A. Cox
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cameron R. Bass
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Center for Applied BiomechanicsUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations