Self-Directed Video Prompting and Least-to-Most Prompting: Examining Ways of Increasing Vocational Skill Acquisition Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability
- 9 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of point-of-view video prompting (VP) as a self-prompting strategy with a least-to-most prompting (LMP) system on the rapidity of skill acquisition of two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and two students with intellectual disability (ID) when working on school-based vocational tasks.
We used multiple probes across students design of single-case experimental methodology to examine whether or not causal relation existed between the intervention and students’ vocational skill acquisition and follow-up performance. Target tasks involved both process and basic functional mathematics steps that required students to pay attention to the process of task completion rather than the functional step itself.
All students showed immediate and considerable improvement in skill acquisition between baseline and intervention. Furthermore, all students completed the tasks with an average of over 90% accuracy once the LMP was removed. The four students in this study required two to six intervention trials to reach 100% accuracy without the use of LMP, with a mean of four trials. Tau-U effect size showed a strong effect of the intervention on skill acquisition and follow-up performance.
VP and LMP as a combined intervention can be effective in teaching vocational tasks that involve process steps to students with both ASD and ID. VP can be a useful support for students with ASD and ID in school, community, and employment settings to decrease reliance on adult prompting and increase independence.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Intellectual disability Video prompting System of least prompts Vocational skills
GY designed and implemented the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper. LL collaborated with the design and implementation of the study. BLB collaborated with the data analyses and writing of the paper. NH collaborated with the implementation of the study. LL collaborated with the implementation of the study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board of the University of Maryland, College Park, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed Consent Statement
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Alexander, J. L., Ayres, K. M., Smith, K. A., Shepley, S. B., & Mataras, T. K. (2013). Using video modeling on an iPad to teach generalized matching on a sorting mail task to adolescents with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1346–1357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.07.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Aljehany, M. S., & Bennett, K. D. (2018). Meta-analysis of video prompting to teach daily living skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Special Education Technology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162643418780495.
- Allen, K. D., Burke, R. V., Howard, M. R., Wallace, D. P., & Bowen, S. L. (2012). Use of audio cuing to expand employment opportunities for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2410–2419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1519-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Banda, D., Dogoe, M., & Matuszny, R. (2011). Review of video prompting studies with persons with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 514–527.Google Scholar
- Bereznak, S., Ayres, K. M., Mechling, L. C., & Alexander, J. L. (2012). Video self-prompting and mobile technology to increase daily living and vocational independence for students with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24, 269–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-012-9270-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cannella-Malone, H. I., Wheaton, J. E., Wu, P., Tullis, C. A., & Park, J. H. (2012). Comparing the effects of video prompting with and without error correction on skill acquisition for students with intellectual disability. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 332–344.Google Scholar
- Carnine, D., Silbert, J., & Kameenui, E. J. (1990). Direct instruction (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Farley, M. A., McMahon, W. M., Fombonne, E., Jenson, W. R., Miller, J., Gardner, M., Block, H., Pingree, C. B., Ritvo, E. R., Ritvo, R. A., & Coon, H. (2009). Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. Autism Research, 2, 109–118. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finke, E. H., Davis, J. M., Benedict, M., Goga, L., Kelly, J., Palumbo, L., Peart, T., & Waters, S. (2017). Effects of a least-to-most prompting procedure on multisymbol message production in children with autism spectrum disorder who use augmentative and alternative communication. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1044/2016_ajslp-14-0187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gardner, S. J., & Wolfe, P. S. (2015). Teaching students with developmental disabilities daily living skills using point-of-view modeling plus video prompting with error correction. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 30, 195–207. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357614547810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2015). Adaptive behavior assessment system (3 rd ed.). Torrance: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Hong, E. R., Ganz, J. B., Mason, R., Morin, K., Davis, J. L., Ninci, J., Neely, L. C., Boles, M. B., & Gilliland, W. D. (2016). The effects of video modeling in teaching functional living skills to persons with ASD: a meta-analysis of single-case studies. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 57, 158–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.07.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hughes, E. M., & Yakubova, G. (2019). Addressing the mathematics gap for students with ASD: An evidence-based systematic review of video-based mathematics interventions. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. (in press)Google Scholar
- Johnson, J. W., Blood, E., Freeman, A., & Simmons, K. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness of teacher-implemented video prompting on an iPod Touch to teach food-preparation skills to high school students with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 28(147–158), 147–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357613476344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kellems, R. O., Frandsen, K., Hansen, B., Gabrilsen, T., Clarke, B., Simons, K., & Clements, K. (2016). Teaching multi-step math skills to adults with disabilities via video prompting. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 58, 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.08.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kellems, R. O., Frandsen, K., Cardon, T. A., Knight, K., & Andersen, M. (2018). Effectiveness of static pictures vs. video prompting for teaching functional life skills to students with autism spectrum disorders. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 62, 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988x.2017.1393790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Mazurek, M. O., Shattuck, P. T., Wagner, M., & Cooper, B. P. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of screen-based media use among youths with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1757–1767. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1413-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mechling, L. C., Gast, D. L., & Fields, E. A. (2008). Evaluation of a portable DVD player and system of least prompts to self-prompt cooking task completion by young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 42, 179–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466907313348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ninci, J., Neely, L. C., Hong, E. R., Boles, M. B., Gilliland, W. D., Ganz, J. B., Davis, J. L., & Vannest, K. J. (2015). Meta-analysis of single-case research on teaching functional living skills to individuals with ASD. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2, 184–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-014-0046-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Odom, S. L., Thompson, J. L., Hedges, S., Boyd, B. A., Dykstra, J. R., Duda, M. A., Szidon, K. L., Smith, L. E., & Bord, A. (2015). Technology-aided interventions and instruction for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3805–3819. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2320-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park, J., Bouck, E., & Duenas, A. (2018). The effect of video modeling and video prompting interventions on individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Special Education Technology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162643418780464.
- Seaman-Tullis, R. L., Cannella-Malone, H. I., & Brock, M. E. (2018). Training a paraprofessional to implement video prompting with error correction to teach a vocational skill. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357618794914.
- Shepley, S. B., Ayres, K. M., Cagliani, R., & Whiteside, E. (2018). Effects of self-mediated video modeling compared to video self-prompting for adolescents with intellectual disability. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 53, 264–275.Google Scholar
- Taber-Doughty, T., Bouck, E. C., Tom, K., Jasper, A. D., Flanagan, S. M., & Bassette, L. (2011). Video modeling and prompting: a comparison of two strategies for teaching cooking skills to students with mild intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 499–513.Google Scholar
- Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 566–574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1070-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Van Laarhoven, T., Kraus, E., Karpman, K., Nizzi, R., & Valentino, J. (2010). A comparison of picture and video prompts to teach daily living skills to individuals with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25, 195–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357610380412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vannest, K.J., Parker, R.I., Gonen, O., & Adiguzel, T. (2016). Single case research: Web-based calculators for SCR analysis. (version 2.0) [Web-based application]. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University. Available from singlecaseresearch.org
- Yanardag, M., Birkan, B., Yilmaz, I., Konukman, F., Agbuga, B., & Lieberman, L. (2011). The effects of least to most prompting procedure on teaching basic tennis skills for children with autism. Kinesiology, 43, 44–55.Google Scholar