Neurodevelopmental Delay in Premature Ecuadorian Children Born Weighing Less than 1500 g: a Follow-up Study

  • Fabricio González-AndradeEmail author
  • Nelly Báez



To determine neurodevelopmental disorders at 3 years of age in two cohorts of premature infants with at least two comorbidities and weigh less than 1500 g, applying the neurodevelopmental scales EDI and Brunet-Lezine.


Epidemiological study, observational study, and cross-sectional study were performed at Neonatology Service of the Gynecological Obstetric Hospital Isidro Ayora, Quito, between 2015 and 2016. It analyzed 204 neonates, distributed in two cohorts, 102 premature newborns under 1500 g with two comorbidities and 102 under 1500 g with more than two comorbidities at birth.


Mestizo mothers, between 25 and 39 years of age, with two or more comorbidities, including hypertension, preeclampsia, and HELLP syndrome, show children with greater neurodevelopmental delay. Children under 1500 g, born between 33 and 36 weeks of gestation and with moderate asphyxia or respiratory depression, whose mother had two more comorbidities are related with a greater delay in neurodevelopment, at 36 months of age when they were evaluated. The patent ductus arteriosus, connate infection, and hydrocephalus are the pathologies on admission which relates with preterm with neurodevelopment delay and with weight. Severe asphyxia, weight between 700 and 900 g, and presence of connate infection early sepsis and septic shock combined cause neurodevelopmental delay.


Delay in neurodevelopment is present in the 11.8% of patients (24/204), at 3 years of age. Mestizo mothers between 25 and 39 years of age with two or more comorbidities, including hypertension, preeclampsia, and HELLP syndrome, with children born between 33 and 36 weeks of gestation, and born with severe asphyxia, show children with greater neurodevelopmental delay.


Neurodevelopment delay Risk factors Comorbidities Ethnicity Mestizos Ecuador 



The authors thank all the medical colleagues and hospital professionals who in some way facilitated the development of this research. They also thank Dr. Luis Eguiguren, Director of the College of Health Sciences of the San Francisco University of Quito, and Dr. Fernando Aguinaga, Coordinator of the Postgraduate Course in Neonatology, and Lorena Rubio, Postgraduate Coordinator of the College of Health Sciences.

Contribution of the Authors

The research protocol and its design, data collection, statistical analysis, evaluation and interpretation of the data, critical analysis, discussion, writing, and approval of the final manuscript were carried out by all authors. They contributed in the same way in the whole process. The corresponding author represents the group of authors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the ethics committee for research with humans (CEISH) and the Institutional Board Committee of the San Francisco University of Quito (USFQ). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. It granted authorization of the Ministry of Public Health.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Consent for Publication

The institutions cited in this document gave their consent to use this information.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Unidad de Medicina TraslacionalUniversidad Central del EcuadorQuitoEcuador
  2. 2.Colegio Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad San Francisco de Quito USFQQuitoEcuador
  3. 3.Pediatric Hospital Baca OrtizQuitoEcuador

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