Advertisement

Knowledge of Autism for Parents of Low Income with Low Literacy: Description and Relationship to Child Development Knowledge

  • Jonathan M. CampbellEmail author
  • Daphne Greenberg
  • Peggy A. Gallagher
  • Zolinda Stoneman
  • Christina Simmons
ORIGINAL PAPER
  • 300 Downloads

Abstract

Parents are critical for early detection of autism; however, children of low SES are identified later than their counterparts. Such delays in detection of autism may be attributed to limited parental knowledge of early developmental milestones and early signs of autism. Authors examined knowledge of developmental milestones and autism in 41 parents of low SES with low literacy. Participants were recruited from adult literacy programs and completed measures of developmental milestones and autism knowledge. Parents reported greater knowledge of motor milestones when compared to other milestones, including language, cognitive, social, and play milestones. Parent knowledge of milestones did not correlate with knowledge of autism. Parents overestimated social and play milestones that indicate autism risk, such as delays in responding to name and pointing to show interest, which may contribute to delays in detection of autism. Authors discuss implications of the results in terms of areas of future research.

Keywords

Autism Parent knowledge Low literacy Developmental milestones 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Ashley H. Johnson, PhD, for her helpful feedback and comments on the manuscript.

Author Contributions

JMC: collaborated in the design and execution of the study, analyzed the data and reported results, and led writing of the manuscript. DG: collaborated with the design and execution of the study, and collaborated with writing and editing of the manuscript. PAG: collaborated in the design and execution of the study, and collaborated with writing and editing of the manuscript. ZS: collaborated with the design and execution of the study and editing of the manuscript. CS: collaborated in the development of measures and execution of the study.

Source of Funding

The research was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) under Cooperative Agreement U01DD000231 to the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review boards of the University of Georgia and Georgia State University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Disclaimer

The content does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of CDC, NCBDDD, nor AUCD.

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Learn the Signs. Act Early. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/.
  2. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Christensen, D. L., Baio, J., Braun, K. V., Bilder, D., Charles, J., Constantino, J. N., et al. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years – autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 65(SS-3), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CTB/McGraw-Hill. (2008). Test of Adult Basic Education. Monterey: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and other measures. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 253–262.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Glascoe, F. P., & Dworkin, P. H. (1995). The role of parents in the detection of developmental and behavioral problems. Pediatrics, 95, 829–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hess, C. R., Teti, D. M., & Hussey-Gardner, B. (2004). Self-efficacy and parenting of high-risk infants: the moderating role of parent knowledge of infant development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 423–437.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holt, J. M., & Christensen, K. M. (2013). Utahns’ understanding of autism spectrum disorder. Disability and Health Journal, 6, 52–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2012.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang, K.-Y., Caughy, M. O., Genevro, J. L., & Miller, T. L. (2005). Maternal knowledge of child development and quality of parenting among White, African-American and Hispanic mothers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 149–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim, H. Y. (2013). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: assessing normal distribution using skewness and kurtosis. Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, 38, 52–54.  https://doi.org/10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kutner, M., Greenberg, E., Jin, Y., & Paulsen, C. (2006). The Health Literacy of America’s Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  12. MacPhee, D. (1981). Manual for the knowledge of infant development inventory. University of North Carolina; unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  13. Mandell, D. S., Listerud, J., Levy, S. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2002). Race differences in the age at diagnosis among Medicaid-eligible children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1447–1453.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200212000-00016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116, 1480–1486.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0185.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Mandell, D. S., Wiggins, L. D., Carpenter, L. A., Daniels, J., DiGuiseppi, C., Durkin, M. S., et al. (2009). Racial/ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 493–498.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.131243.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Marshall, J., Coulter, M. L., Gorski, P. A., & Ewing, A. (2016). Parent recognition and responses to developmental concerns in young children. Infants and Young Children, 29, 102–115.  https://doi.org/10.1097/IYC.0000000000000056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitchell, G. E., & Locke, K. D. (2015). Lay beliefs about autism spectrum disorder among the general public and childcare providers. Autism, 19, 553–561.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361314533839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ratto, A. B., Reznick, J. S., & Turner-Brown, L. (2015). Cultural effects on the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among Latinos. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 31, 275–283.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357615587501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reich, S. M. (2005). What do mothers know? Maternal knowledge of child development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 143–156.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Robins, D., Fein, D., & Barton, M. (2009). Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-Revised with Follow-Up. https://www.m-chat.org/.
  21. Segall, M. J., & Campbell, J. M. (2014). Factors influencing the educational placement of students with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 31–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shieh, C., & Hosei, B. (2008). Printed health information materials: evaluation of readability and suitability. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 25, 73–90.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07370010802017083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sundstrom, B. (2016). Mothers “Google It Up:” extending communication channel behavior in diffusion of innovations theory. Health Communication, 31, 91–101.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2014.936339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Tamis-Lemonda, C. S., Chen, L. A., & Bornstein, M. H. (1998). Mothers’ knowledge about children’s play and language development: short-term stability and interrelations. Developmental Psychology, 34, 115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.1.115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tamis-Lemonda, C. S., Shannon, J., & Spellmann, M. (2002). Low-income adolescent mothers’ knowledge about domains of child development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 88–103.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.10006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). National action plan to improve health literacy. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  27. Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. Journal of the American Medical Association, 49-55(55), 289.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.1.49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational, School, and Counseling PsychologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations