Living with Nematode: an Epibiont Trematosoma rotunda Associated with Basibiont Desmodora scaldensis from Matla Estuary, Sundarbans, India

  • Moumita Ghosh
  • Sumit MandalEmail author


In the present study, we reported the symbiotic associations of suctorian epibionts Trematosoma rotunda (Allgén 1952) with marine nematode Desmodora scaldensis de Man 1889. The attachment of the epibionts on the cuticle of marine free-living nematodes was reported for the first time from subtidal zone of Matla estuary, Sundarbans, India. We compared the biometrics of epibiont T. rotunda with published literatures, discussed host-epibiont interactions and suggested future research opportunities.


Desmodora scaldensis Epibionts Free-living nematodes Sundarbans Symbiotic associations Trematosoma rotunda 



The authors wish to express their gratitude to The Vice Chancellor, Presidency University for providing facilities and encouragement to carry out the above research work. The authors are grateful to Dr. Igor Dovgal, Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Ukraine, for identification and confirmation of ciliate epibionts. The authors are thankful to Dr. Meenakshi Chatterjee of Basanti Devi College, Kolkata for her ever willing help and cooperation during the study. Thanks are also due to the Directorate of Forest and the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, Government of West Bengal for permission to work in some of the Reserve Forest areas (permission letters memo no. 3561/WL/4R-6/2016 dated 26.07.2016 and 3837/WL/4R-6/2017 dated 11.08.2017). The authors would also like to express their appreciation to the members of the Marine Ecology Laboratory for excellent team work.


Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India (Sanction No. MoES/36/OOIS/Extra/24/2013 dated 11.04.2016) to S.M. and University Research Fellowship by the Presidency University, Kolkata to M.G.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Sampling and Field Studies

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Directorate of Forest and the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, Government of West Bengal for permission to work in some of the Reserve Forest areas (permission letters memo no. 3561/WL/4R-6/2016 dated 26.07.2016 and 3837/WL/4R-6/2017 dated 11.08.2017).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Ecology Laboratory, Department of Life SciencesPresidency UniversityKolkataIndia

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