Advertisement

To Estimate Growth Function by the Use of SLW Index in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria arenicola (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata) of Pakistan (Northern Arabian Sea)

  • Saima SiddiqueEmail author
  • Zarrien Ayub
Article
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

Accurate measurements of weight and length in sea cucumbers are difficult due to body wall elasticity. The compound indices that combine different biometric parameters can be utilized to obtain more precise biometric relationships. We estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth functions like K, L∞ and t0 in Holothuria arenicola. Total length, total weight and gutted weight were measured. A compound index in which the length and width were combined to produce the SLW index (square root of length multiplied by width) and its associated transformation like Le (recalculated length) were evaluated and the morphometric relationships between total weight/total length, gutted weight/ total length, total weight/recalculated length and gutted weight/recalculated length were also investigated. Student’s t-test showed that H. arenicola grows allometrically (b not equal to 3, P < 0.05), with negative allometric tendency. No difference was found in total body length and recalculated length of an anesthetized sea cucumber in present study. The estimated natural mortality of H. arenicola found as low as compared to other species of sea cucumber which showed that this species may be more resistant to predation. Furthermore, these results are potentially significant to progress aquaculture systems for this and other comparable sea cucumber species in subtropical ecosystems.

Keywords

Sea cucumber SLW index Growth parameters Mortality Pakistan 

References

  1. Abdel-Razek FA, Mona MH, Abdel-Rahman SH, El-Gamal MM, Moussa RH, Taha SM (2010) Observations on the abundance of Holothurian species along the Alexandria coast of Eastern Mediterranean waters. 39th CIESM congress Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson SC, Flemming JM, Watson R, Lotze HK (2011) Serial exploitation of global sea cucumber fisheries. Fish Fish 12:317–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chao SM, Chen CP, Alexander PS (1994) Reproduction and growth of Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) at two contrasting sites in southern Taiwan. Mar Biol 19:565–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chávez EA, Salgado-Rogel MDL, Palleiro-Nayar J (2011) Stock assessment of the warty sea cucumber fishery (Parastichopus parvimensis) of NW Baja California. CalCOFI Rep 52:136–147Google Scholar
  5. Choo PS (2008) The Philippines: a hotspot of sea cucumber fisheries in Asia. In: Toral-Granda V, Lovatelli A, Vasconcellos M (eds) Sea cucumbers: a global review of fisheries. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No, vol 516, pp 119–142Google Scholar
  6. Conand C (1981) Sexual cycles of three commercially important holothurian species (Echinodermata) from the lagoon of New Caledonia. Bull Mar Sci 31:523–543Google Scholar
  7. Conand C (1988) Beche-de-mer in New Caledonia: Biology and fishing. Workshop on Pacific Inshore Fishery Resources. Noumea, New Caledonia. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.WP. pp 5–11Google Scholar
  8. Conand C (1989) Les Holothuries Aspidochirotes du lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie : biologie, écologie et exploitation. Etudes et Thèses, O.R.S.T.O.M, Paris. pp 393Google Scholar
  9. Conand C (1990) The fishery resources of Pacific island countries. Part 2: holothurians. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 272. FAO, Rome, p 143Google Scholar
  10. Conand C, Sloan N (1989) World fisheries for echinoderms. In: Caddy FJ (ed) Marine invertebrate fisheries. Wiley, New York, pp 647–663Google Scholar
  11. Dissanayake DCT, Stefansson G (2010) Reproductive biology of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria atra (Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida) in the northwestern coastal waters of Sri Lanka. Invertebr Reprod Dev 54:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ebert TA (1978) Growth and size of the Tropical Sea cucumber Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Juger at Enewetak atoll, Marshall Islands. Pac Sci 32:183–191Google Scholar
  13. Ebert TA, Russell MP (1993) Growth and mortality of subtidal red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) at san Nicolas Island, California, USA: problems with models. Mar Biol 117:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ebert TA, Russell MP (1994) Allometry and model II nonlinear regression. J Theor Biol 168:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francour P (1997) Fish assemblages of Posidonia oceanica beds at port-Cros (France, NW Mediterranean): assessment of composition and long-term fluctuations by visual census. Mar Ecol 18:157–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuente-Betancourt MG, Jesús-Navarrete A, Sosa-Cordero E, Herrero-Perezrul MD (2001) Assessment of the sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) as potential fishery resource in Banco Chinchorro, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Bull Mar Sci 64:59–67Google Scholar
  17. Guzmán HM, Guevara CA, Hernández IC (2003) Reproductive cycle of two commercial species of sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from Caribbean Panama. Mar Biol 142:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamano T, Amio M, Hayashi K (1989) Population dynamics of Stichopus japonicas Selenka (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) in an intertidal zone and on the adjacent sub-tidal bottom with artificial reefs for Sargassum. Suisan Zoshoku 37:179−186Google Scholar
  19. Hannah L, Duprey N, Blackburn J, Hand CM, Pearce CM (2012) Growth rate of the California Sea cucumber Parastichopus californicus: measurement accuracy and relationships between size and weight metrics. N Am J Fish Manag 32:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herrero-Pérezrul MD, Chávez EA (2005) Optimum fishing strategies for Isostichopus fuscus (Echinodermata: holothuroidea) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Int J Trop Biol 53:357–366Google Scholar
  21. Herrero-Pérezrul MD, Reyes-Bonilla H, García-Domínguez F, Cintra-Buenrostro CE (1999) Reproduction and growth of Isostichopus fuscus (Ludwig, 1875) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in the southern gulf of California, México. Mar Biol 135:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kinch J (2002) An overview of the Beche-de-mer fishery in the Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. SPC Bêche-de-mer Inf Bull 17:2–16Google Scholar
  23. Laboy-Nieves EN, Conde JE (2006) A new approach for measuring Holothuria Mexicana and Isostichopus badionotus for stock assessments. SPC Bêche-de-mer Inf Bull 24:39–43Google Scholar
  24. Lopez Veiga EC (1979) Fitting Von Bertalanffy growth curves, a new approach. Investig Pesq 43:179–186Google Scholar
  25. Lovatelli A, Conand C, Purcell S, Uthicke S, Hamel JF, Mercier A (2004) Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management. FAO Fish Tech Pap 463:425Google Scholar
  26. Mercier A, Battaglene SC, Hamel JF (2000) Periodic movement, recruitment and size-related distribution of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra in Solomon Islands. Hydrobiologia 440:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morgan AD (2012) Use of a growth model to estimates size at age in the temperate sea cucumber. Australostichopus mollis. SPC Bêche-de-mer Inf Bull 32:24–32Google Scholar
  28. Pauly D (1980) On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J Cons int Explor Mer 39:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pauly D, David N (1981) ELEFAN I, a BASIC program for the objective extraction of growth parameters from length-frequency data. Meeresforschung/Rep Mar Sci 28:205–211Google Scholar
  30. Pauly D, Sambilay VJR, Opitz S (1993) Estimates of relative food consumption by fish and invertebrate populations, required for modelling the Bolinao reef ecosystem, Philippines. In: Christensen V, Pauly D (eds) Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conf Proc 26:236–251Google Scholar
  31. Pérez-Plascencia G (1995) Crecimiento y reproducción del pepino de mar en la Bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Baja California (UABC), Mexico, p 67Google Scholar
  32. Poot-Salazar A, Hernández-Flores A, Ardisson PL (2014) Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus. Sci Rep 4:1–7Google Scholar
  33. Purcell SW (2010) Managing sea cucumber fisheries with an ecosystem approach. In: Lovatelli A, Vasconcellos M, Yimin Y (ed) FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 520.FAO, Rome, pp 157Google Scholar
  34. Purcell SW, Mercier A, Conand C, Hamel JF, Lovatelli A, Toral-Granda V, Uthicke S (2013) Sea cucumber fisheries: global analysis of stocks, management measures and drivers of overfishing. Fish Fish 14:34–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reyes-Bonilla H, Herrero-Pérezrul MD (2003) Population parameters of an exploited population of Isostichopus fuscus (Holothuroidea) in the southern gulf of California, Mexico. Fish Res 59:423–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ricker WE (1975) Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull Fish Res B of Can No. 191, pp 382Google Scholar
  37. Shelley C (1985) Growth of Actinopyga echinites and Holothuria scabra (Holothurioidea: Echinodermata) and their fisheries potential (as beche-de-mer) in Papua New Guinea. In: Delesalle et al (ed) Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, vol 5. Tahiti, pp 297–302Google Scholar
  38. So J, Hamel JF, Mercier A (2010) Habitat utilization, growth and predation of Cucumaria frondosa: implications for an emerging sea cucumber fishery. Fish Manag Ecol 17:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sparre P, Venema SC (1995) IntroduccioÂn a la evaluacioÂn de recursos pesqueros tropicales. FAO Doc. Tec. Pesca 306/1. DANIDA-FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  40. Sparre P, Venema SC (1998) Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1. Manual. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 306.1, rev. FAO, Rome, p 2Google Scholar
  41. Sparre P, Ursin E, Venema SC (1989) Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1. Manuel. FAO fisheries technical paper. No. 306.1. Rome, FAO, p 337Google Scholar
  42. Sulardiono B, Prayitno SB, Hendrarto IB (2012) The growth analysis of Stichopus vastus (Echinodermata: Stichopodidae) in Karimunjawa waters. J Coast Dev 15:315–323Google Scholar
  43. Taylor CC (1958) Cod growth and temperature. J Mar Sci 23:366–370Google Scholar
  44. Uthicke S, Welch D, Benzie JAH (2004) Slow growth and lack of recovery in overfished holothurians on the great barrier reef: evidence from DNA fingerprints and repeated large scale surveys. Conserv Biol 18:1395–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Von Bertalanffy L (1938) A quantitative theory of organic growth. Hum Biol 10:181–213Google Scholar
  46. Wiedemeyer WL (1994) Biology of small juveniles of the tropical holothurian Actinopyga echinites: growth, mortality and habitat preferences. Mar Biol 120:81–93Google Scholar
  47. Yamana Y, Hamano T (2006) New size measurement for the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Stichopodidae) estimated from the body length and body breadth. Fish Sci 72:585–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zann L, Brodie J, Berryman C, Nagasima M (1987) Recruitment, ecology, growth and behavior of juvenile Acanthaster planci (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Bull Mar Sci 41:561–575Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Reference Collection and Resource CentreUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence in Marine BiologyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations