Report of a Zoanthus Zone from the Cabo Verde Islands (Central Eastern Atlantic)
- 31 Downloads
Zoanthus is a genus of colonial cnidarians very common in shallow subtropical and tropical rocky and coral reef ecosystems around the world. Some species, such as Zoanthus solanderi and Z. sociatus, can coexist and cover extensive areas in the subtidal zone of some areas in the Caribbean. We report on a ‘Zoanthus zone’ in Western Africa in a bay in the north of Maio Island in the Cabo Verde Archipelago, discovered in October 2014. Molecular analyses showed that the Maio Island carpet is formed by Z. sociatus and Z. solanderi. Similar aggregations have been reported from the other side of the Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean. This work demonstrates the presence of the ‘Zoanthus zone’ in the Central East Atlantic and adds two new records of Zoanthus species in the Cabo Verde Islands.
KeywordsMarine biodiversity Maio Island Molecular analyses West Africa Zoanthus sociatus Zoanthus solanderi
We thank the University of Cabo Verde for support in the prospecting survey and Nivaldo Ramos (FMB) for local assistance and field equipment. We are thankful the FMB local NGO for providing the opportunity to undertake this study. We are indebted to Mariano Hernández for his kindly help in primers designs and Carlos M. L. Afonso (UAlg, CCMar) for shared information on Zoanthus colonies. The Agencia Canaria de Investigación, Innovación y Sociedad de la Información de la Consejería de Economía, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento (ACIISI) and Fondo Social Europeo (FSE) Programa Operativo Integrado de Canarias 2014-2020, Eje 3 Tema Prioritario 74 (85%) supported CL’s internship in Okinawa, Japan where analyses were carried out. We thank Martyn E.Y. Low (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature) for help with nomenclatural issues. The senior author was supported by JSPS Kiban B grant entitled “Global evolution of Brachycnemina and their Symbiodinium”. This work was also supported by the AWA project funded by IRD and the BMBF (grant 01DG12073E).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- Anonymous (2014) Boletim Oficial da republica de Cabo Verde. I Série, No17. Decreto-Lei no. 17/2014 de 10 de Março de 2014 do Ministério do Desenvolvimento RuralGoogle Scholar
- Folmer O, Black M, Hoeh W, Lutz R, Vrijenhoek R (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 3:294–299Google Scholar
- Irei Y, Nozawa Y, Reimer JD (2011) Distribution patterns of five zoanthid species in Okinawa Island. Japan. Zool Stud 50:426–433Google Scholar
- Karlson RH (1980) Alternative competitive strategies in a periodically disturbed habitat. Bull Mar Sci 30:894–900Google Scholar
- Karlson RH (1981) Reproductive patterns in Zoanthus sp. from Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef Symp 2:699–704Google Scholar
- Morri CR, Cattaeno-Vietti R, Sartori G, Bianchi CN (2000) Shallow epibenthic communities of Ilha do Sal (Cape Verde archipelago, eastern Atlantic). Arquipel Life Mar Sci Suppl 2:157–165Google Scholar
- Nunes FLD, Norris RD, Knowlton N (2011) Long distance dispersal and connectivity in amphi-Atlantic corals at regional and basin scales. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022298
- Pax F (1910) Studien an westindischen Actinien. Zool Jahrb Supplement 11:157–330Google Scholar
- Pax F, Müller I (1956) Zoantharien aus Französisch Westafrika. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noire 18:418–458Google Scholar
- QGIS Development Team (2016) QGIS geographic information system. Opensource geospatial foundation project. http://qgis.osgeo.org
- Reimer JD, Hirose M, Wirtz P (2010) Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the northeastern Atlantic. Contrib Zool 79:147–163Google Scholar
- Reimer JD, Foord C, Irei Y (2012) Species diversity of shallow water zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Florida. J Mar Biol. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/856079
- Sebens KP (1977) Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition of coral reefs zoanthids. Proc. 3rd Int. Coral Reef Symp 1:397–404Google Scholar
- Sebens KP (1982) Intertidal distribution of zoanthids on the Caribbean coast of Panama: effects of predation and desiccation. Bull Mar Sci 32:316–335Google Scholar
- Van der Land J (1993) Marine biota of the Cape Verde Islands. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 159:39–44Google Scholar