First Record of the Bathypelagic Chaetognath Heterokrohnia involucrum Dawson, 1968 in the Gulf of California and its Association with a Parasitic Nematode

  • David González-Solís
  • Rebeca Gasca


During a plankton survey of shallow and deep waters in the Gulf of California carried out with the aid of an unmanned submersible by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), a specimen of the deep-living epibenthic chaetognath Heterokrohnia involucrum Dawson, 1968 was collected at a depth of 2670 m in the Alarcon Mount region. This species was originally described from the Arctic Ocean and it is now recorded for the first time in Mexican waters, thus representing a new geographical record and expanding its geographical range. The chaetognath was parasitized in the coelom with a larval stage of the nematode Hysterothylacium sp. that is probably assignable to H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) and frequently found in zooplankton organisms, which act as intermediate hosts. There are no previous records of nematodes parasitizing deep-living chaetognaths, so this finding also represents a new host record.


Anisakid Hysterothylacium Bentho-pelagic Arrow worms Chaetognatha 



The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) organized this scientific expedition and allowed us to examine the specimens. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation supported the expedition. Steven H.D. Haddock invited RG to participate in the cruise and E. V. Thuesen kindly sent us the parasited chaetognath to study it. The specimens were collected under permits DGOPA.-02919/14 and CTC/01700/15 given by the Mexican Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (SAGARPA) and the Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores (SRE), respectively.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad ChetumalChetumalMexico

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