Simulations of the Population Dynamics of Jellyfish Polyps Living on Artificial Substrates in Coastal Areas

  • Hong Sung Jin
  • Dongyeob Han
  • Jung-Hun Kim
  • Hyun-Jae Shin
  • Yang Ho Yoon
  • Chang-hoon Han
Article
  • 93 Downloads

Abstract

Artificial substrates in coastal areas provide suitable habitats for jellyfish (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps. Here, we examined the population dynamics of jellyfish polyps as a function of substrate unit variation using delayed differential equations. The time delay in the equations was set to 1 year; that is, the effects of increasing available substrate appeared with a 1-year delay. An increase in the amount of substrate resulted in an exponential increase in the polyp population, although survivorship was reduced by 95% as a result of natural processes. To reduce the jellyfish polyp population, two scenarios and their effects were simulated: a change in polyp survivorship condition on the substrate and the removal of artificial substrate. The delayed effects of different survivorship conditions generated oscillations in polyp populations, with blooms occurring in alternate years, whereas decreasing the amount of artificial substrate available reduced the effective carrying capacity and, consequently, the polyp abundance. Simulation results further indicated that limiting jellyfish blooms in coastal areas is only possible if the amount of artificial substrate is reduced or removed.

Keywords

Jellyfish polyp Habitat Substrate Bloom Survivorship condition Population dynamics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on earlier versions of this paper. This study was financially supported by Chonnam National University, 2013

References

  1. Arai MN (2001) Pelagic coelenterates and eutrophication: a review. Hydrobiologia 451:69–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boero F, Bouillon J, Gravili C, Miglietta MP, Parsons T, Piraino S (2008) Gelatinous plankton: irregularities rule the world (sometimes). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 356:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Duarte CM, Pitt KA, Lucas CH, Purcell JE, Uye S, Robinson K, Brotz L, Decker MB, Sutherland KR, Malej A, Madin L, Mianzan H, Gili J, Fuentes V, Atienza D, Pagés F, Breitburg D, Malek J, Graham WM, Condon RH (2013) Is global ocean sprawl a cause of jellyfish blooms? Front Ecol Environ 11:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gröndahl F (1988) Interactions between polyps of Aurelia aurita and planktonic larvae of scyphozoans: an experimental study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 45:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gröndahl F (1989) Evidence of gregarious settlement of planula larvae of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita: an experimental study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 56:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Holst S, Jarms G (2007) Substrate choice and settlement preferences of planula larvae of five Scyphozoa (Cnidaria) from German Bight, North Sea. Mar Biol 151:863–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hoover RA, Purcell JE (2009) Substrate preferences of scyphozoan Aurelia labiata polyps among common dock-building materials. Hydrobiologia 616:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ishii H, Katsukoshi K (2010) Seasonal and vertical distribution of Aurelia aurita polyps on a pylon in the innermost part of Tokyo Bay. J Oceanogr 66:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ishii H, Ohba T, Kobayashi T (2008) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on planula settlement, polyp growth and asexual reproduction of Aurelia aurita. Plankon Benthos Res 3:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lo W, Purcell JE, Hung J, Su H, Hsu P (2008) Enhancement of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) populations by extensive aquaculture rafts in a coastal lagoon in Taiwan. ICES J Mar Sci 65:453–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mills CE (2001) Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miyake H, Terazaki M, Kakinuma Y (2002) On the polyps of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Kagoshima Bay. J Oceanogr 58:451–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mutlu E (2001) Distribution and abundance of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and its zooplankton food in the Black Sea. Mar Biol 138:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Purcell JE (2012) Jellyfish and ctenophore blooms coincide with human proliferations and environmental perturbations. Annu Rev Mar Sci 4:209–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Purcell JE, Uye S, Lo W (2007) Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 350:153–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rutherford LD, Thuesen EV (2005) Metabolic performance and survival of medusae in estuarine hypoxia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 294:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shoji J, Kudoh T, Takatsuji H, Kawaguchi O, Kasai A (2010) Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 86:485–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. UNEP (brochure), 2005. Coastal area pollution. The role of cities. http://www.unep.org/urban_environment/PDFs/Coastal_Pollution_Role_of_Cities.pdf. Accessed 17 Jul 2016
  19. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yukalov VI, Yukalova EP, Sornette D (2009) Punctuated evolution due to delayed carrying capacity. Physical D: Nonlinear Phenomena 238:1752–1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yukalov VI, Yukalova EP, Sornette D (2012) Extreme events in population dynamics with functional carrying capacity. Eur Phys J Spec Top 205:313–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Sung Jin
    • 1
  • Dongyeob Han
    • 2
  • Jung-Hun Kim
    • 3
  • Hyun-Jae Shin
    • 3
  • Yang Ho Yoon
    • 4
  • Chang-hoon Han
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsChonnam National UniversityBukguRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Marine and Civil EngineeringChonnam National UniversityYeosuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.School of Marine TechnologyChonnam National UniversityYeosuRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Ocean Climate & Ecology Research DivisionNational Institute of Fisheries ScienceBusanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations