Advertisement

Groundwater quality evaluation in the vicinity of the Draa Sfar Mine in Marrakesh, Morocco

  • A. BoujghadEmail author
  • A. Bouabdli
  • B. Baghdad
Original Paper
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

The Draa Sfar Mine is one of the main base-metal mines in the region of Marrakesh (Morocco). The residues of the activities of Draa Sfar Mine can be a source of the groundwater pollution due to heavy metals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and metallic quality of the groundwater at the vicinity of this mine. In this context, groundwater samples were taken from 17 wells in April 2016. The study was achieved on the following major elements (Cl, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, NO3, SO42− and HCO3), Eh, pH, EC and the heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe). The heavy metals results show that all the wells that were examined are under the WHO (2011) standards. From a physicochemical point of view, the study proved that the 17 wells contain a high degree of salinity, especially those located in the downstream of the mine (P10, P11, P12, P13, P15, and P16).

Keywords

Draa Sfar Mine Pollution Groundwater Quality Physicochemical Salinity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Ali Bouari, Jaber Hassna, El Azhari Abdellah, and all the staff of the Center for Analysis and Characterization (CAC) and the National Center for Research on Water and the Environment (CNEREE), UCA, Marrakech, for their collaboration during hydro-geochemistry analyses. Many thanks to the editors and reviewers.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The present paper is an original work and all the authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Abdoulaye DN, Khadijettoumint MMS, Mohamed B, Mohamed OSAO, Michel B (2014) Contribution à l’étude de l’évolution Spatio-temporelle de la qualité physicochimique de l’Eau de la Rive droite du fleuve Sénégal. J Mater Environ Sci 5(1):320–329Google Scholar
  2. AFNOR (1997) Qualité de l’eau, recueil des normes françaises, vol 2, 2nd edn. Association Française de Normalisation, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. Agoumi A, Naji A (1998) Changements climatiques et ressources en eau dans les pays du Maghreb. Rapport établi dans le cadre du projet PNuD-FEM RAB/94/g31Google Scholar
  4. Ait lamkademe A (2010) Origine de la salinité de l’eau dans les schistes profonds dans la région de Marrakech. Thèse de doctorat, de l’Université Paris Sud 11, pp 120Google Scholar
  5. Avila M, Perez G, Esshaimi M, Mandi L, Ouazzani N, Brianso JL, Valiente M (2012) Heavy metal contamination and mobility at the mine area of Draa Lasfar (Morocco). Open Environ Pollut Toxicol J 3(Suppl 1-M2):2-12.11Google Scholar
  6. Bakalowicz M (1974) Géochimie des eaux aquifères karstiques I. Relation entre minéralisation et conductivité. Ann Spéléol 29:267–282Google Scholar
  7. Barkouch Y, Pineau A (2015) Evaluation of the impact of mine activity on surrounding soils of Draa Lasfar mine in Marrakech-Morocco. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 10(1):44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barkouch Y, El Fadeli S, Lakmichi H, Khadiri ME, Pineau A (2015) Characterization of five heavy metal fractions in agricultural soils around the mine area of Draa Lasfar Marrakech-Morroco. Asian J Sci Technol 6:1588–1594Google Scholar
  9. Belkabir A, Gibson H, Marcoux E, Lenz D, Rziki S (2008) Geology and wall-rock alteration at the Hercynian Draa Sfar Zn-Pb-Cu deposit Morocco. Ore Geol Rev 33:280–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blowes D, Ptacek C, Jambor J, Weisener C (2003) The geochemistry of acid mine drainage. Treatise Geochem 9:149–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boulanouar M (1995) Faune aquatique des puits et qualité de l’eau dans les régions de Marrakech et des Jbilet. Statut et dynamique d’une population de Proasellus coxalis africanus (Crustacés Isopodes) des Jbilet. Thèse de doctorat, D’Etat Fac Sc Semlalia Marrakech Morocco, p 207Google Scholar
  12. Boularbah A, Schwartz C, Bitton G, Aboudrar W, Ouhammou A, Morel JL (2006) Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in south Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants. Chemosphere 63:811–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buzatu A, Dill H-G, Buzgar N, Damian G, Maftei A-E, Apopei A-I (2016) Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania)—acid mine drainage and climatological approach. Sci Total Environ 542:629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carballo MA, Macias F, Nieto JM, Ayora C (2016) Long-term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: implication for waters resources management and remediation. Sci Total Environ 538:327–334Google Scholar
  15. El Adnani M, Rodriguez-Maroto JM, Sbai ML, Idrissi Loukili L, Nejmeddine A (2007a) Impact of a polymetallic mine (Zn, Pb, Cu) residues on surface water, sediments and soils at the vicinity (Marrakech, Morocco). Environ Technol 28(9):969–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. El Adnani M, Ait Boughrous A, Yacoubi Khebiza M, El Gharmali A, Sbai ML, Erraouane S, Loukili Idrissi L, Nejmeddine A (2007b) Impact of mining wastes on the physicochemical and biological characteristics of groundwater in a mining area in Marrakech (Morocco). Environ Technol 25(1):71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El Amari K, Valera P, Hibti M, Pretti S, Marcello A, Essarraj S (2014) Impact of mine tailings on surrounding soils and ground water: case of Kettara old mine Morocco. J Afr Earth Sci 100:437–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. El Gharmali A (2005) Impact des résidus miniers et des eaux résiduaires sur la contamination métallique des écosystèmes aquatiques et terrestres de la région de Marrakech. Thèse doctorat d’Etat Université Cadi Ayyad Faculté des Sciences Semlalia Marrakech Morocco, p 166Google Scholar
  19. El Gharmali A, Rada A, El Adnani M, Tahlil N, El Meray M, Nejmeddine A (2004) Impact du drainage minier acide sur les écosystèmes aquatiques superficiels dans la région de Marrakech Maroc. Environ Technol 25:1431–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El Mandour A (1990) Actualisation des connaissances hydrogéologiques du massif des Jebilet, Meseta Occidentale. Thèse 3ème cycl, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, MarocGoogle Scholar
  21. El-Fadili S, Bouhouch RR, Benmazhar H, Barkouch Y, Zimmerman MB, Sedki A (2015) Caractérisation de la qualité physico-chimique et minéralogique de l’eau de consommation de quatre zones de la ville de Marrakech-Maroc. J Mater Environ Sci 6(9):2437–2445Google Scholar
  22. Hakkou R, Wahbi M, Bachnou A, El Amari K, Hanich L, Hibti M (2001) Impact de la décharge publique de Marrakech (Maroc) sur les ressources en eau. Bull Eng Geol Environ 60:325–336Google Scholar
  23. Hakkou R, Benzaazoua M, Bussière B (2008) Acide mine drainage at the abandoned Kettara mine Morocco: 1: Environmental characterization. Mine Water Environ 27:145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Han Y-S, Youm S-J, Oh C, Cho Y-C, Ahn J-S (2017) Geochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of stream water and its sediments affected by acid mine drainage. Catena 148(1):52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hibti M (2001) Les amas sulfurés des Guémassa et des Jebilet (Mesta sud-occidentale, Maroc): témoins de l’hydrothermlisme précoce dans le bassin mesetien. Thèse de doctorat, D’Etat. Fac. Sc. Semlalia Marrakech, Morocco, p 301Google Scholar
  26. Liu F, Song Yang L, Han D, Zhang Y, Ying Ma HBu (2015) The role of antropogenic and natural factors in shaping the geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Subel Lake basin, Ordos energy base, Northwestern China. Sci Total Environ 538:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lottermoser BG, Ashley PM, Lawie DC (1999) Environmental geochemistry of the Gulf Creek copper mine area, north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Environ Geol 39:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ministry of Energy and Mine (1996). Regional delegation of Marrakesh. Marrakesh region monography (geology, mine, energy)Google Scholar
  29. Oufline R, Hakkou R, Hanich L, Boularbah A (2012) Impact of human activities on the physico-chemical quality of surface water and groundwater in the north of Marrakech (Morocco). Environ Technol 33:2077–2088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prasad BG, Narayana TS (2004) Subsurface water quality of different sampling stations with some selected parameters at Machilipatnam Town. Nat Environ Pollut Technol 3:47–50Google Scholar
  31. Rosner U (1998) Effects of historical mining activities on surface water and groundwater—an example from northwest Arizona. Environ Geol 33:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Srivastas SK, Yadav HL, Seervi V, Jamal A (2017) Assessment of water quality near vicinity of lignite mine region, Gujarat, India: a case study. IARJSET 4:42–47Google Scholar
  33. Tazi O, Abdelilah F, El-Younoussi S (2001) Impact de la pollution sur l’unique réseau hydrographique de Casablanca, Maroc. Science et Changements Planétaires/Sécheresse 12:129–134Google Scholar
  34. WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Recommendations, 4th edn, p 518Google Scholar
  35. Wilcox LV (1948) The quality of water for agricultural use. US Dept Agric Tech Bull 962:19Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceIbn Tofail UniversityKenitraMorocco
  2. 2.Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary MedicineRabatMorocco

Personalised recommendations