Experimental analysis of tensile, flexural, and tribological properties of walnut shell powder/polyester composites

  • Vishal AhlawatEmail author
  • Sanjay Kajal
  • Anuradha Parinam
Conference Paper


Polyester composite specimens with varying wt% of walnut shell powder (WSP) were prepared and characterized for their mechanical and tribological properties. The results of mechanical testing showed that the specific tensile modulus increased with an increase in WSP wt%, whereas the specific flexural modulus slightly decreased at 30 wt%. However, the specific tensile and flexural strength of neat polyester specimen were found to be more than the doped specimens. The specific tensile strength decreased with an increase in WSP wt%, whereas the flexural strength substantially varied with wt%. The tribo-properties were investigated using a wear and friction-monitoring apparatus. It was found from the tribo study that the doped specimens offered higher wear resistance than the neat polyester specimen at all the sliding conditions. The friction coefficient of the doped specimens also remained higher than the neat polyester specimen at most of the sliding conditions. Based on these favorable properties, i.e., increased stiffness, lower specific wear rate, and higher friction coefficient, the WSP can be used as a potential bio-filler in friction composites where such properties are highly desirable.


Walnut shell powder (WSP) Bio-composites Tensile and flexural properties Friction and wear 

List of symbols


Density of composite, kg/m3


Weight fraction of fibers


Weight fraction of matrix material


Density of fiber, kg/m3


Density of matrix/resin, kg/m3


Volume fraction of void


Experimental density of composite, kg/m3


Theoretical density of composite, kg/m3


Flexural strength, MPa


Deflection, mm


Flexural modulus, MPa


Maximum load, N


Distance between the supports, mm


Width of sample, mm


Thickness, mm


Coefficient of friction



The authors would like to acknowledge the CITCO-IDFC testing laboratory, Chandigarh, for providing the mechanical testing facilities and the Mechanical Engineering Department of UIET, KUK for the tribo-testing facility.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there are no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vishal Ahlawat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanjay Kajal
    • 1
  • Anuradha Parinam
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentU.I.E.T., Kurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia

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