Advertisement

Microalgae–bacteria consortium treatment technology for municipal wastewater management

  • Jemal FitoEmail author
  • Keneni Alemu
Original Paper

Abstract

The discharge of inadequately treated municipal wastewater in the developing countries is the major cause of environmental pollution in urban areas. However, the effort was made to minimize this burden using conventional wastewater treatment methods that require high capital and operational costs and are not affordable. Researchers are still looking for the cost-effective, efficient and environmentally compatible wastewater treatment technologies. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the potential of native microalgae–bacteria consortia for the removal of nutrient and organic pollutants from primary-treated municipal wastewater. Microalgae–bacteria treatment system was established by combining pre-cultured native algae consortia dominated by Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenedesmus sp. of the class Chlorophyceae with naturally existing municipal wastewater bacteria. Microalgae–bacteria culture acclimatization was performed and the actual experiment was carried out at 18% culture to wastewater by volume in photobioreactor at a light intensity of 120 μE/m2s. The maximum removal of TKN 69%, TP 59%, PO43−_ P 73%, COD 84% and BOD5 85% was observed in the combined treatment system, whereas for bacteria stand-alone treatment system, the maximum removal of TKN 31%, TP 56%, PO43−_ P 50%, COD 44% and BOD5 52% was recorded. Statistically significant differences were observed for the removal of NH3–N, TKN and PO43−_ P at p < 0.05 but statistically insignificant differences were observed for TP, COD and BOD5 in the combined treatment system. The study results suggest that the native microalgae consortia identified in the local environment can effectively reduce organic and nutrient pollutants from the primary-treated municipal wastewater. Generally, the performance evaluation of combined microalgae–bacteria treatment technology was efficient in municipal wastewater management and promising to scale up at industrial level.

Keywords

Environment Municipal effluent Water pollution Nutrients Organic pollutants Wastewater treatment 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Fito J, Tefera N, Van Hulle SWH (2017) Adsorption of distillery spent wash on activated bagasse fly ash: kinetics and thermodynamics. J Environ Chem Eng 5:5381–5388.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rawat R, Ranjith Kumar T, Mutanda FB (2011) Dual role of microalgae: phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and biomass production for sustainable biofuels production. Appl Energy 88:3411–3424.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.11.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Renuka N, Sood A, Ratha SK (2013) Evaluation of microalgal consortia for treatment of primary treated sewage effluent and biomass production. J Appl Phycol 25:1529–1537.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-9982-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang T, Omosa IB, Chiramba T (2014) Water and wastewater treatment in Africa—current practices and challenges, review article. Clean Soil Air Water 42:1029–1035.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Renuka N, Sood A, Prasanna R, Ahluwalia AS (2015) Phycoremediation of wastewaters: a synergistic approach using microalgae for bioremediation and biomass generation. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:1443–1460.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-014-0700-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pittman JK, Dean AP, Osundeko O (2011) The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources. Biores Technol 102:17–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Halfhide T, Dalrymple OK, Wilkie AC et al (2014) Growth of an indigenous algal consortium on anaerobically digested municipal sludge centrate: photobioreactor performance and modeling. Bioenergy Res 8:249–258.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-014-9513-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rawat, S.K. Gupta, A. Shriwastav, P. Singh, S. Kumari FB (2016) Microalgae applications in wastewater products and processes. Algae Biotechnol Prod Process.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12334-9 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mayo AW, Hanai EE (2014) Dynamics of nitrogen transformation and removal in a pilot high rate pond. Water Water Resour Prot 6:433–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Razzak SA, Hossain MM, Lucky RA et al (2013) Integrated CO 2 capture, wastewater treatment and biofuel production by microalgae culturing—A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 27:622–653.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jia H, Yuan Q (2017) Removal of nitrogen from wastewater using microalgae and microalgae—bacteria consortia. Cogent Environ Sci 31:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23311843.2016.1275089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pires JCM, Martins FG, Simões M (2013) Wastewater treatment to enhance the economic viability of microalgae culture. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5096–5105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1791-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chinnasamy S, Bhatnagar A, Hunt RW, Das KC (2010) Bioresource Technology Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications. Biores Technol 101:3097–3105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma X, Zhou W, Fu Z et al (2014) Effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal in wastewater-based algae cultivation system. Biores Technol 167:8–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.05.087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mun R, Guieysse B (2006) Algal—bacterial processes for the treatment of hazardous contaminants: a review. Water Res 40:2799–2815.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liang Z, Liu Y, Ge F et al (2013) Efficiency assessment and pH effect in removing nitrogen and phosphorus by algae-bacteria combined system of Chlorella vulgaris and Bacillus licheniformis. Chemosphere 92:1383–1389.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hernandez J, Luz E, Rodriguez DJ et al (2009) Growth promotion of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris by the nitrogen-fixing, plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus pumilus from arid zone soils. Eur J Soil Biol 45:88–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2008.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gonzalez LUZE (2000) Increased growth of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris when co- immobilized and co-cultured in alginate beads with the plant-growth-promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1527–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Santiago AF, Calijuri ML, Assemany PP (2013) Algal biomass production and wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds receiving disinfected effluent. Environ Technol 34(13–14):1877–1885.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.812670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Delgadillo-Mirqueza L, Lopes F, Taidic B, Pareau D (2018) Nitrogen and phosphate removal from wastewater with a mixed microalgal and bacteria culture. Biotechnol Rep 11:1–23Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Worku A, Tefera N, Kloos H, Benor S (2018) Bioremediation of brewery wastewater using hydroponics planted with vetiver grass in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Bioresour Bioprocess 5:39.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643-018-0225-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association; American Water Works Association; Water Environment Federation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silkina A, Nelson GD, Bayliss CE et al (2017) Bioremediation efficacy—comparison of nutrient removal from an anaerobic digest waste-based medium by an algal consortium before and after cryopreservation. J Appl Phycol 29:1331–1341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-017-1066-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lv J, Feng J, Liu Q, Xie S (2017) Microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent: recent developments and future work. Int J Mol Sci 18:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferrier M, Martin JL (2002) Stimulation of Alexandrium fundyense growth by bacterial assemblages from the Bay of Fundy. J Appl Microbiol 92:706–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Metcalf-eddy L (2003) Wastewater engineering treatment and reuse, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cai T, Park SY, Li Y (2013) Nutrient recovery from wastewater streams by microalgae: status and prospects. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 19:360–369.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Riaño B, Molinuevo B (2011) Bioresource technology treatment of fish processing wastewater with microalgae-containing microbiota. Biores Technol 102:10829–10833.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martinez ME, Jimnez JM, Yousfi FE (1999) Influence of phosphorus concentration and temperature on growth and phosphorus uptake by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Biores Technol 67:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nurdogan Y, Oswald WJ (1995) Enhanced nutrient removal in high-rate ponds. Water Sci Technol 31:33–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-1223(95)00490-E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Luz E, Moreno M, Hernandez J, Bashan Y (2002) Removal of ammonium and phosphorus ions from synthetic wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris coimmobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Water Res 36:2941–2948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Su HY, Zhang YL, Zhang CM, Zhou XFLJ (2011) Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in soybean processing wastewater. Biores Technol 107:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Renuka N, Sood A, Ratha SK, Prasanna R (2012) Nutrient sequestration, biomass production by microalgae and phytoremediation of sewage water. Int J Phytoremediation, 37–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2012.736436 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Luz E, Hernandez J, Morey T, Bashan Y (2004) Microalgae growth-promoting bacteria as ‘“helpers”’ for microalgae: a novel approach for removing ammonium and phosphorus from municipal wastewater. Water Res 38:466–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.09.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee CS, Oh H, Oh H et al (2016) Two-phase photoperiodic cultivation of algal—bacterial consortia for high biomass production and efficient nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Biores Technol 200:867–875.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Su Y, Mennerich A, Urban B (2012) Synergistic cooperation between wastewater-born algae and activated sludge for wastewater treatment: influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios. Biores Technol 105:67–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.11.113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Foladori P, Petrini S, Nessenzia M, Andreottola G (2018) Enhanced nitrogen removal and energy saving in a microalgal-bacterial consortium treating real municipal wastewater. Water Sci Technol 78:174–182.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2018.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    De Godos I, Blanco S, García-encina PA et al (2009) Long-term operation of high rate algal ponds for the bioremediation of piggery wastewaters at high loading rates. Biores Technol 100:4332–4339.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chen G, Zhao L, Qi Y (2015) Enhancing the productivity of microalgae cultivated in wastewater toward biofuel production: a critical review. Appl Energy 137:282–291.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringAddis Ababa Science and Technology UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Ethiopian Institute of Water ResourcesAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations