Advertisement

The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) Evaluated Using Cognitive Brain-Training App Games on Tablet or Cell phone for Both Genders

  • Herbert Câmara NickEmail author
  • Maria Lucia Machado Duarte
  • Pedro Vieira Xavier
Original Paper
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Advances in the technology of mobile devices and wireless computers have transformed the way individuals communicate, making people’s use of such devices very frequent while traveling by means of transport. Vibrations are found in a variety of human activities, such as travel, leisure and work activities, and therefore, exposure is unavoidable to the individual. In order to maximize the time during the trip, people try to keep their minds active with study or work activities or in search of socialization for the purpose of distraction or entertainment. This has sparked the interest of the scientific community in conducting studies focusing on how this interaction of the individual with the cellular can affect cognitive performance. The present article intends to constitute an analysis on the effects of whole-body vibration exposure on cognition in university students assessed through the use of a game application for cognitive brain training on a cell phone or tablet for both genders. The aim of this work is to present the results of the influence of whole-body vibration on cognition in different variables (gender, type of device used and frequency of exposure) as a contribution to scientific and technological research. Forty people, being 20 females and 20 males, participated in the experimental test, having to exercise their cognitive abilities through the use of an application for brain-training games. It was based on traffic light images. When the green light appeared, the subjects had to click as quick as possible on the screen, being the processing speed the objective measure. The individuals were subdivided into groups to be able to verify the influence of the vibration according to the type of mobile device (smartphone or tablet) used for the game, gender of the volunteer (female or male) and whole-body vibration frequency (5 Hz or 30 Hz) and with 0.8 m/s2 of amplitude. The WBV exposure duration was 10 min. After the exposure, participants remained at rest for 5 min while playing a new round of the game. In this way, it was possible to acquire data before and during exposure to vibration and following a period of rest after the exposure. Considering the collected data, a nonparametric statistical analysis (Mann–Whitney tests) was necessary. The results showed decay in the game score during the time with vibration in relation to the initial time without vibration. However, there is a tendency for recovery in the score obtained in the game during the time at rest after the exposure to the vibration in relation to the initial time at rest without vibration. Comparing the use of cell phone versus tablet, it is evident that for the same-gender group under the influence of vibration at the same frequency, better results are obtained with the use of tablet. With exposure to whole-body vibration at the 30 Hz frequency, volunteers presented better results than those subjected to the effects of whole-body vibration at 5 Hz frequency. When one compares the male and female genders, maintaining the same frequency and type of device of each group, it was found that the female group performed slightly better than the male one. The study sought to verify how the cognition and whole-body vibration relate. Moreover, this paradigm served to analyze whether there is any deficit effect or improvement in the individual’s performance in performing certain types of activities due to some influence on the cognitive processes of information processing speed. By observing the analyzed aspects, it is concluded that the exposure to whole-body vibration at both applied frequencies exerts a delay in the reaction and accuracy of the information speed process, with the individual recovering in the acquired score after cessation of vibratory excitation. Therefore, whole-body vibration is an important parameter in all cognitive processes, and further studies should be suggested, implying other variables in the process, in order to verify how the individual behaves and how much it influences cognitive system.

Keywords

Cognition Whole-body vibration Mobile devices Processing speed 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

This statement is to certify that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript being submitted. We warrant that the article is the authors’ original work. We warrant that the article has not received prior publication and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest. This research has not been submitted for publication nor has it been published in whole or in part elsewhere. We attest to the fact that all authors listed on the title page have contributed significantly to the work, have read the manuscript, attest to the validity and legitimacy of the data and its interpretation and agree to its submission.

References

  1. 1.
    Abramov I, Gordon J, Feldman O, Chavarga A (2012) Sex & vision I: spatio-temporal resolution. Biol Sex Differ 3(20):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2042-6410-3-20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abramov I, Gordon J, Feldman O, Chavarga A (2012) Sex and vision II: color appearance of monochromatic lights. Biol Sex Differ 3(21):1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2042-6410-3-21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amaral TP (2015) Implementação e Verificação de um Sistema de Controle para Plataforma de Testes de Vibração de Corpo Inteiro (VCI). Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Belo Horizonte. http://www.bibliotecadigital.ufmg.br. Accessed 18 Aug 2018
  4. 4.
    Faria E (1962) Dicionário Escolar Latino-Português, 3rd edn. Ministério da Educação e Cultura, Campanha Nacional de Material de Ensino, p 1077. http://www.dominiopublico.gov.br/download/texto/me001612.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2018
  5. 5.
    Feldbusch A, Sadegh-Azar H, Agne P (2017) Vibration analysis using mobile devices (smartphones or tablets). In: X international conference on structural dynamics, EURODYN 2017. Kaiserslautern, Germany. Procedia Engineering—ScienceDirect, pp 2790–2795. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705817340614. Accessed 15 Sept 2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Friedenberg J, Silverman G (2006) Cognitive science an introduction to the study of mind, vol 1. Sage Publications, London. ISBN: 1-4129-2568-1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fuermaier ABM, Tucha L, Koerts J, van Heuvelen MJG, van der Zee EA, et al (2014) Good vibrations – effects of whole body vibration on attention in healthy individuals and individuals with ADHD. PLoS ONE 9(2):e90747.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090747 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Griffin MJ, Hayword RA (1994) Effects of horizontal whole-body vibration on reading. Appl Ergon 25(3):165–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-6870(94)90014-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Griffin MJ (1996) Handbook of human vibration. Academic Press, London, p 988Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    GSM Association (2018) The Mobile Economy 2018. Global System for Mobile Communications Association, London. https://www.gsma.com/mobileeconomy/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/The-Mobile-Economy-2018.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2018
  11. 11.
    ISO 2631 Part 1 (1997) Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration—Part 1: general requirements. International Organisation for Standardisation, GenovaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mansfield NJ (2005) Human response to vibration. Taylor & Francis e-Library, London, p 266Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parsons KC, Griffin MJ (1988) Whole-body vibration perception thresholds. J Sound Vib 121:237–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-460X(88)80027-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shivakumara BS, Sridhar V (2010) Study of vibration and its effect on health of the motorcycle rider. Online J Health Allied Sci 9(2):9Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stat Counter Global Stats (2018) Desktop vs mobile vs tablet market share worldwide. http://gs.statcounter.com/platform-market-share/desktop-mobile-tablet/worldwide/#monthly-201709-201809-bar. Accessed 26 Sept 2018
  16. 16.
    Sternberg RJ, Sternberg K (2012) Cognitive psychology, 6th edn. Wadsworth, Belmont, p 643. ISBN-13: 978-1-111-34476-4/ISBN-10: 1-111-34476-0Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Teplan M (2002) Fundamentals of EEG measurement. Meas Sci Rev 2(2):1–11Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ward AF et al (2017) Brain drain: the mere presence of one’s own smartphone reduces available cognitive capacity. J Assoc Consum Res 2(2):140–154.  https://doi.org/10.1086/691462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert Câmara Nick
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maria Lucia Machado Duarte
    • 1
  • Pedro Vieira Xavier
    • 1
  1. 1.Group of Acoustics and Vibration on Human Beings (GRAVISH), Mechanical Engineering Department, School of EngineeringUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Belo HorizonteBrazil

Personalised recommendations