Advertisement

Improved DSSC photovoltaic performance using reduced graphene oxide–carbon nanotube/platinum assisted with customised triple-tail surfactant as counter electrode and zinc oxide nanowire/titanium dioxide nanoparticle bilayer nanocomposite as photoanode

  • Suriani Abu BakarEmail author
  • Fatiatun
  • Azmi Mohamed
  • Muqoyyanah
  • Norhayati Hashim
  • Mohamad Hafiz Mamat
  • Mohd Khairul Ahmad
  • Putut Marwoto
Original Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was produced from graphene oxide (GO) by a reduction process, which utilised hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent. GO was initially synthesised by electrochemical exfoliation assisted with customised triple-tail sodium 1,4-bis(neopentyloxy)-3-(neopentyloxycarbonyl)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-silphonate (TC14) surfactant. The produced TC184-rGO solution was subsequently hybridised with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from waste palm oil. The produced TC14-rGO and TC14-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid solution was fabricated as thin films by spray coating method. Afterwards, Pt nanoparticle (NP) coating was fabricated. The films were used as counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) application. Three other CEs, namely TC14-rGO, TC14-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid and TC14-rGO/Pt hybrid, were fabricated for comparison. Zinc oxide nanowire (NWR)/titanium dioxide nanoparticle (NP) bilayer was utilised as photoanode and fabricated via sol–gel immersion and squeegee method. Solar simulator measurement showed that the highest DSSC performance was exhibited by TC14-rGO/MWCNTs/Pt hybrid, which presented an energy conversion efficiency, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit-current density and fill factor of 0.0842%, 0.608 V, 0.285 mA/cm2 and 0.397, respectively. The combination of TC14-rGO/MWCNTs/Pt hybrid CE and ZnO NWR/TiO2 NP bilayer photoanode improved the DSSC performance due to the large surface area of TC14-rGO and MWCNTs, the high electrical conductivity of MWCNTs and the high quality and less agglomeration of thin rGO film assisted with triple-tail TC14 surfactant. The ZnO NWR/TiO2 NP bilayer photoanode also demonstrated a large surface area that can optimally adsorb dye molecules and increase the photo-exciton electrons, which further improve the DSSC performance.

Keywords

Electrochemical exfoliation Reduced graphene oxide Multiwalled carbon nanotubes/platinum hybrid Counter electrode Zinc oxide nanowire/titanium dioxide nanoparticle bilayer Dye-sensitised solar cells 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the TWAS-COMSTECH Joint Research Grant (Grant Code 2017-0001-102-11) and Fundamental Research Grand Scheme (Grant Code 2015-0154-102-02) for providing financial support.

References

  1. 1.
    O’Regan B, Gratzel M (1991) A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal titanium dioxide films. Nature 6346(353):737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hug H, Bader M, Mair P, Glatzel T (2014) Biophotovoltaics: natural pigments in dye-sensitized solar cells. Appl Energy 115:216–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang JH, Bark CW, Kim KH, Choi HW (2014) Characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes treated with TiCl4. Materials 4(90):3522–3532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xue Y, Liu J, Chen H, Wang R, Li D, Qu J, Dai L (2012) Nitrogen-doped graphene foams as metal-free counter electrodes in high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Int Ed 51(48):12124–12127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tsai C, Chen C, Hsiao Y, Chuang P (2014) Investigation of graphene nanosheets as counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Org Electron 17:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kole M, Dey TK (2013) Investigation of thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity of graphene based nanofluids. J Appl Phys 113(8):084307-1–084307-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parvez K, Wu Z, Li R, Liu X, Graf R (2014) Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in aqueous solutions. J Am Chem Soc 136:6083–6091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ovid’ko I (2013) Mechanical properties of graphene. Rev Adv Mater Sci 34:1–11Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li Z, Song B, Wu Z, Lin Z, Yao Y, Moon KS, Wong CP (2015) 3D porous graphene with ultrahigh surface area for microscale capacitive deionization. Nano Energy 11:711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nur S, Mohd A, Isa I, Hashim N (2014) A review of glucose biosensors based on graphene/metal oxide nanomaterials. Anal Lett 47:1821–1834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang LH, Hsieh CK, Hsiao MC, Chiang JC, Liu PI, Ho KK, Ma CCM, Yen MY, Tsai MC, Tsai CH (2013) A graphene-multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid supported on fluorinated tin oxide as a counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. J Power Sources 222:518–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miao X, Tongay S, Petterson MK, Berke K, Rinzler AG, Appleton BR, Hebard AF (2012) High efficiency graphene solar cells by chemical doping. Nano Lett 12:6–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim KS, Zhao Y, Jang H, Lee SY, Kim JM, Kim KS, Ahn JH, Kim P, Choi JY, Hong BH (2008) Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. Nature 457(7230):706–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma J, Shen W, Li C, Yu F (2015) Light reharvesting and enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based 3D-CNT/graphene counter electrodes. J Mater Chem A 3:12307–12313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang H, Hu YH (2012) Graphene as a counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 5:8182–8188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murakami TN, Ito S, Wang Q, Nazeeruddin MK, Bessho T, Cesar I, Liska P, Baker RH, Comte P, Pechy P, Gratzel M (2006) Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells based on carbon black counter electrodes. J Electrochem Soc 153(12):A2255–A2261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Suriani AB, Fatiatun, Mohamed A, Muqoyyanah Hashim N, Rosmi MS, Mamat MH, Malek MF, Salifairus MJ, Khalil HPSA (2018) Reduced graphene oxide/platinum hybrid counter electrode assisted by custom-made triple tails surfactant and zinc oxide/titanium dioxide bilayer nanocomposite photoanode for enhancement of DSSCs photovoltaic performance. Opt Int J Light Electron Opt 161:70–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bykkam S, Rao V, Chakra S, Thunugunta T (2013) Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide and its antibacterial activity against klebseilla and staphylococus. Inter J Adv Biotechnol Res 4(1):1005–1009Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alanyalioglu M, Segura JJ, Sole JO, Pastor NC (2011) The synthesis of graphene sheets with controlled thickness and order using surfactant-assisted electrochemical processes. Carbon 50:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen J, Yao B, Li C, Shi G (2013) An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide. Carbon 64(1):225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yu P, Lowe SE, Simon GP, Zhong YL (2015) Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite and production of functional graphene. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 20(5–6):329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Parvez K, Li R, Puniredd SR, Hernandez Y, Hinkel F, Wang S, Feng X, Mullen K (2013) Electrochemically exfoliated graphene as solution-processable, highly conductive electrodes for organic electronics. ACS Nano 7(4):3598–3606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu J, Duan Y, Zhou X, Lin Y (2013) Improved synthesis of graphene flakes from the multiple electrochemical exfoliation of graphite rod. Nano Energy 2(3):377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suriani AB, Muqoyyanah, Mohamed A, Mamat MH, Hashim N, Isa IM, Malek MF, Kairi MI, Mohamed AR, Ahmad MK (2017) Improving the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs using a combination of mixed-phase TiO2 nanostructure photoanode and agglomerated free reduced graphene oxide counter electrode assisted with hyperbranched surfactant. Opt Int J Light Electron Opt 158:522–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mohamed A, Ardyani T, Suriani AB, Brown P, Hollamby M, Sagisaka M, Eastoe J (2016) Graphene-philic surfactants for nanocomposites in latex technology. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 230:54–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uddin E, Kuila T, Nayak GC, Kim NH, Ku BC, Lee JH (2013) Effects of various surfactants on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of surface modified graphene. J Alloys Compd 562:134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zeng BQ, Cheng J, Tang L, Liu X, Liu Y, Li J (2010) Self-assembled graphene–enzyme hierarchical nanostructures for electrochemical biosensing. Adv Funct Mater 20:3366–3372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kakaei K, Hasanpour K (2014) Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and its application for oxygen reduction. J Mater Chem A Mater Energy Sustain 2:15428–15436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stankovich S, Piner RD, Chen X, Wu N, Nguyen T, Ruoff RS (2006) Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). J Mater Chem 16:155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mohamed A, Anas AK, Suriani AB, Ardyani T, Zin WMW, Ibrahim S, Sagisaka M, Brown P (2015) Enhanced dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes in natural rubber latex nanocomposites by surfactants bearing phenyl groups. J Colloid Interface Sci 455:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mohamed A, Anas AK, Suriani AB, Aziz AA, Sagisaka M, Brown P, Eastoe J, Kamari A, Hashim N, Isa IM (2014) Stabilised by highly branched hydrocarbon surfactants and dispersed in natural rubber latex nanocomposites. Colloid Polym Sci 292:3013–3023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chua CK, Pumera M (2014) Chemical reduction of graphene oxide: a synthetic chemistry viewpoint. Chem Soc Rev 43:291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xie X, Zhao K, Xu X, Zhao W, Liu S, Zhu Z, Li M, Shi Z, Shao Y (2010) Study of heterogeneous electron transfer on the graphene/self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode by electrochemical approaches. J Phys Chem C 114:14243–14250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang Y, Zhang P, Liau CF, Zhan L, Li YF, Huang CZ (2012) Green and easy synthesis of biocompatible graphene for use as an anticoagulant. RSC Adv 2:2322–2328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu J, Fu S, Yuan B, Li Y, Deng Z (2010) Toward a universal “adhesive nanosheet” for the assembly of multiple nanoparticles based on a protein-induced reduction/decoration of graphene. J Am Chem Soc 132:7279–7281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang S, Shao Y, Liao H, Engelhard MH, Yin G, Lin G (2011) Polyelectrolyte-induced reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide: a facile route to synthesis of soluble graphene. ACS Nano 5(3):1785–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lee Y, Zhang Y, Lay S, Ng G, Kartawidjaja FC, Wang J (2009) Hydrothermal growth of vertical ZnO nanorods. J Mater Ceram Soc 92(9):1940–1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Orlita M, Faugeras C, Plochocka P, Neugebaurer P, Martinez G, Maude DK, Barra AL, Sprinkle M, Borger C, Heer WAD, Potemski M (2008) Approaching the Dirac point in high-mobility multilayer epitaxial graphene. Phys Rev Lett 101(26):267601-1–267601-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pop E, Mann D, Wang Q, Goodson K, Dai H (2006) Thermal conductance of an individual single-wall carbon nanotube above room temperature. Nano Lett 6(1):96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suriani AB, Alfarisa S, Mohamed A, Isa IM, Kamari A, Hashim N (2014) Quasi-aligned carbon nanotubes synthesised from waste engine oil. Mater Lett 139:220–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suriani AB, Dalila AR, Mohamed A, Mamat MH, Salina M, Rosmi MS, Rosly J, Nor RM, Rusop M (2013) Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized from waste chicken fat. Mater Lett 101:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Suriani AB, Nor R, Rusop M (2010) Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized from waste cooking palm oil. J Cer Soc Jpn 118:963–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zobir SAM, Suriani AB, Abdullah S, Zainal Z, Sarijo SH, Rusop M (2012) Raman spectroscopic study of carbon nanotubes prepared using Fe/ZnO-palm olein-chemical vapour deposition. J Nanomat 2012(451473):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jackson P, Jacobsen NR, Baun A, Bikerdal R, Kuhnel D, Jensen KA, Vogel A, Wallin H (2013) Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes. Chem Cen J 7(154):1–21Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Azmina MS, Suriani AB, Falina AN (2012) Temperature effects on the production of carbon nanotubes from palm oil by thermal chemical vapor deposition method. Adv Mat Res 364:359–362Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang DW, Li XD, Li HB, Chen S, Sun Z, Yin ZJ, Huang SM (2011) Graphene-based counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Carbon 49:5382–5388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee WJ, Ramasamy E, Lee DY, Song JS (2009) Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with catalytic multiwall carbon nanotube counter electrodes. ACS App Mat Inter 6:1145–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pham VH, Cuong TV, Hur SH, Shin EW, Kim JS, Chung J, Kim EJ (2010) Fast and simple fabrication of a large transparent chemically-converted graphene film by spray-coating. Carbon 48(7):1945–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Omar A, Abdullah H (2014) Electron transport analysis in zinc oxide-based dye-sensitized solar cells: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 31:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rahman MYA, Umar AA, Taslim R, Roza L, Saad SKM, Salleh MM (2014) TiO2 and ZnO thin film nanostructure for photoelectrochemical cell application: a Brief Review. Int J Electroactive Mater 2:4–7Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arunachalam A, Dhanapandian S, Manoharan C, Sridhar R (2015) Spectrochimica acta part a: molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy characterization of sprayed TiO2 on ITO substrates for solar cell applications. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 149:904–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Snaith HJ, Ducati C (2010) SnO2-based dye sensitized hybrid solar cells exhibiting near unity absorbed photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Nano Lett 10:1259–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim CW, Suh SP, Choi MJ, Kang YS, Kang YS (2013) Fabrication of SrTiO3–TiO2 heterojunction photoanode with enlarged pore diameter for dye-sensitized solar cells. J Mater Chem A 1:11820–11827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jin X, Liu C, Xu J, Wang Q, Chen D (2014) Size-controlled synthesis of mesoporous Nb2O5 microspheres for dye senistized solar cells. RSC Adv 4:35546–35553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yang G, Miao C, Bu Z, Wang Q, Guo W (2013) Seed free and low temperature growth of ZnO nanowires in mesoporous TiO2 film for dye-sensitized solar cells with enhanced photovoltaic performance. J Power Sources 233:74–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Safitri RN, Suriani AB, Alfarisa S, Mohamed A, Hashim N, Kamari A, Isa IM, Mahmood MR, Mohamed AR (2015) Zinc oxide/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite: synthesis methods and potential applications. Adv Mater Res 1109:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lee Y, Chae J, Kang M (2010) Comparison of the photovoltaic efficiency on DSSC for nanometer sized TiO2 using a conventional sol–gel and solvothermal methods. J Ind Eng Chem 16(4):609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fan J, Hao Y, Munuera C, Hernandez MG, Guell F, Johansson EMJ, Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A, Cabot A (2013) Influence of the annealing atmosphere on the performance of ZnO nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells influence of the annealing atmosphere on the performance of ZnO nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 17:6349–16356Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mou J, Zhang W, Fan J, Deng H, Chen W (2011) Facile synthesis of ZnO nanobullets/nanoflakes and their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells. J Alloys Compd 509(3):961–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Li Z, Zhou Y, Xue G, Yu T, Liu J, Zhou Z (2012) Fabrication of hierarchically assembled microspheres consisting of nanoporous ZnO nanosheets for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells. J Mater Chem 22:14341–14345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wu Y, Liu D, Yu N, Liu Y, Liang H, Du G (2013) Structure and electrical characteristics of zinc oxide thin films grown on si (111) by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. J Mater Sci Technol 29(9):830–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fan Z, Lu JG (2005) Zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis and properties. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5(10):1561–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Muskens OL, Rivas JG, Algra RE, Bakkers EPAM, Lagendijk A (2008) Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications. Nano Lett 8(9):2638–2642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Malek MF, Hafiz MH, Soga T, Rahman SA, Suriani AB, Ismail AS, Alrokayan SAH, Khan HA, Mahmood MR (2016) Thickness-controlled synthesis of vertically aligned c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays: effect of growth time via novel dual sonication sol–gel process. J Appl Phys 55:011AE5-1–011AE5-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suriani AB, Safitri RN, Mohamed A, Alfarisa S, Isa IM, Kamari A, Hashim N, Ahmad MK, Malek MF, Rusop M (2015) Enhanced field electron emission of flower-like zinc oxide on zinc oxide nanorods grown on carbon nanotubes. Mater Lett 149:66–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lu L, Chen J, Li L, Wang W (2012) Direct synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on FTO substrates using a CVD method and the improvement of photovoltaic performance. Nanoscale Res Lett 7(293):1–8Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lupan O, Pauporte T, Viana B, Tiginyanu IM, Ursaki VV, Cortes R (2010) Epitaxial electrodeposition of ZnO nanowire arrays on p-GaN for efficient UV-light emitting diode fabrication. ACS Appl Mater Inter 2(7):2083–2090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhang Y, Ram MK, Stefanakos EK, Goswami DY (2012) Synthesis, characterization and applications of ZnO nanowires. J Nanomat 2012:1–22Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Caglar Y (2013) Sol–gel derived nanostructure undoped and cobalt doped ZnO: structural, optical and electrical studies. J Alloys Compd 560:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Malek MF, Mamat MH, Khusami Z, Sahdan MZ, Musa MZ, Zainun AR, Suriani AB, Sin NDM, Hamid SBA, Rusop M (2014) Sonicated sol–gel preparation of nanoparticulate ZnO thin films with various deposition speeds: the highly preferred c-axis (002) orientation enhances the final properties. J Alloys Compd 582:12–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chai S, Lau T, Dayou J, Sipaut CS, Mansa RF (2014) Development in photoanode materials for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells. Int J Renew Energy Res 4(3):37Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Narayan MR (2012) Review:dye sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16(1):208–215Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lou Y, Yuan S, Zhao Y, Hu P, Wang Z, Zhang M, Shi L, Li D (2013) A simple route for decorating TiO2 nanoparticle over ZnO aggregates dye-sensitized solar cell. Chem Eng J 229:190–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zhou Q, Wen JZ, Zhao P, Anderson WA (2017) Synthesis of vertically-aligned zinc oxide nanowires and their application as a photocatalyst. Nanomater 7(9):1–13Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yadav BC, Pandey NK, Srivastava AK, Sharma P (2007) Optical humidity sensors based on titania films fabricated by sol–gel and thermal evaporation methods. Meas Sci Technol 18:254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chorfi H, Saadoun M, Bousselmi L, Bessais B (2012) TiO2–ITO and TiO2–ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment. EPJ Web Con 29:00015-1–00015-7Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Samad NA, Lai CW, Lau KS, Hamid SBA (2016) Efficient solar-induced photoelectrochemical response using coupling semiconductor TiO2–ZnO nanorod film. Materials 9(937):1–21Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Suriani AB, Dalila AR, Mohamed A, Mamat MH, Malek MF, Soga T, Tanemura M (2016) Fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-zinc oxide nanocomposites and their field electron emission enhancement. Mater Des 90:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Suriani AB, Safitri RN, Mohamed A, Alfarisa S, Malek MF (2016) Synthesis and field electron emission properties of waste cooking palm oil-based carbon nanotubes coated on different zinc oxide nanostructures. J Alloys Compd 656:368–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rusli NI, Tanikawa M, Mahmood MR, Yasui K (2012) Growth of high-density zinc oxide nanorods on porous silicon by thermal evaporation. Materials 5:2817–2832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaniyoor A, Ramaprabhu S (2011) Thermally exfoliated graphene based counter electrode for low cost dye sensitized solar cells. J Appl Phys 109:124308-1–124308-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hu J, Li H, Wu Q, Zhao Y, Jiao Q (2014) Synthesis of TiO2 nanowire/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic performances. Chem Eng J 263:144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Safavi A, Tohidi M, Mahyari FA, Shahbaazi H (2012) One-pot synthesis of large scale graphene nanosheets from graphite–liquid crystal composite via thermal treatment. J Mater Chem 22:3825–3831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zhu G, Pan L, Lu T, Sun Z (2011) Electrophoretic deposition of reduced graphene-carbon nanotubes composite films as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. J Mater Chem 21:14869–14875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ahmed F, Kumar S, Arshi N, Anwar MS, Prakash R (2011) Growth and characterization of ZnO nanorods by microwave-assisted route: green chemistry approach. Adv Mater Lett 2(3):183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Devaraj R, Karthikeyan K, Jeyasubramanian K (2013) Synthesis and properties of ZnO nanorods by modified Pechini process. Appl Nanosci 3(1):37–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Marie M, Mandal S, Manasreh O (2015) An electrochemical glucose sensor based on zinc oxide nanorods. Sensors 15:18714–18723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kumar R, Singh RK, Singh DP, Vaz AR, Yadav RR, Rout CS, Moshkalev SA (2017) Synthesis of self-assembled and hierarchical palladium CNTs-reduced graphene oxide composites for enhanced field emission properties. Mater Des 122:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chen X, Pe D, Wu H, Zhao X, Zhang J, Cheng K, Wu P, Mu S (2015) Platinized graphene/ceramics nano-sandwiched architectures and electrodes with outstanding performance for PEM fuel cells. Sci Rep 5(16246):1–10Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tuinstra F, Koenig JL (1970) Raman spectrum of graphite Raman spectrum of graphite. J Chem Phys 53(3):1126–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, Kleinhammes A, Jia Y, Wu Y, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2007) Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon 45:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Liu H, Zhang L, Guo Y, Cheng C, Yang L, Jiang L, Yu G, Hu W, Liu Y, Zhu D (2013) Reduction of graphene oxide to highly conductive graphene by Lawesson’s reagent and its electrical applications. J Mat Chem C 1:3104–3109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Low CTJ, Walsh FC, Chakrabarti MH, Hashim MA, Hussain MA (2013) Electrochemical approaches to the production of graphene flakes and their potential applications. Carbon 54:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hong X, Chen Y, Wu PZ, Zheng H (2015) Simple, effective fabrication of layered carbon nanotube/graphene hybrid field emitters by electrophoretic deposition. J Vac Sci Technol B 33(1):011802-1–011802-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kumar K, Kim YS, Li X, Ding J, Fisher FT, Yang EH (2013) Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes on monolayer graphene substrates: reduced etching via suppressed catalytic hydrogenation using C2H4. Chem Mater 25(19):3874–3879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yang B, Bin D, Wang H, Zhu M, Yang P, Du Y (2015) Colloids and surfaces A: physicochemical and engineering aspects high quality pt–graphene nanocomposites for efficient electrocatalytic nitrite sensing. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp 481:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Manthina V, Baena JPC, Liu G, Agrios AG (2012) ZnO–TiO2 nanocomposite films for high light harvesting efficiency and fast electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 116:23864–23870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shabannia R (2015) Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: effect of growth time. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 25(2):95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tauc J, Grigorovici R, Vancu A (1966) Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium. Phys Stat Sol 15:627–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mathur RB, Pande S, Singh BP, Dhami TL (2008) Electrical and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced PMMA and PS composites. Polym Comp 29(7):717–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tao X, Ruan P, Zhang X, Sun Zhou X (2015) Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell. Nanoscale 7:3539–3547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gong J, Liang J, Sumathy K (2012) Review on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): fundamental concepts and novel materials. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16(8):5848–5860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Roy-mayhew JD, Bozym DJ, Punckt C, Aksay IA (2010) Functionalized graphene as a catalytic solar cells. ACS Nano 4(10):6203–6211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yue G, Ma X, Zhang W, Li F, Wu J, Li G (2015) A highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cell based on nickel sulfide/platinum/titanium counter electrode. Nanoscale Res 10(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suriani Abu Bakar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Fatiatun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Azmi Mohamed
    • 1
    • 3
  • Muqoyyanah
    • 1
    • 2
  • Norhayati Hashim
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mohamad Hafiz Mamat
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mohd Khairul Ahmad
    • 6
  • Putut Marwoto
    • 7
  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Nanotechnology Research CentreUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan IdrisTanjung MalimMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and MathematicsUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan IdrisTanjung MalimMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and MathematicsUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan IdrisTanjung MalimMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of Electrical Engineering, NANO-Electronic Centre (NET)Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)Shah AlamMalaysia
  5. 5.NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS)Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)Shah AlamMalaysia
  6. 6.Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaParit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  7. 7.Materials Research Group, Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural ScienceUniversitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES)Sekaran Gunungpati, SemarangIndonesia

Personalised recommendations