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Ionic liquid-mediated functionalization of graphene-based materials for versatile applications: a review

  • Chandrabhan Verma
  • Eno E. Ebenso
Review
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Industrial applications of the graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) can be further explored by making them more dispersible in the aqueous and organic environments. Several attempts have been performed to enhance the dispersity of the G and GO in which surface functionalization is one of the most effective methods. Recently, surface functionalization of G and GO using ionic liquids is gaining particular emphasis because of their high thermal and chemical stability, low volatility, very high ability to dissolve a wide range of compounds and more importantly their environmental-friendly behaviour. The covalent functionalization of G and GO is mostly being achieved by acylation, esterification, isocyanate formation, nucleophilic ring opening, amide formation, and diazotization and cycloaddition reactions. Non-covalent functionalization mostly involves electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, ππ interactions, van der Waals interaction and donor–acceptor interactions. Because of their high dipolar nature, ionic liquids strongly interact with the sp2-hydrodized carbon networks of G and GO sheets and make them more dispersible as compared to their native networks. In the present review article, we described the collection of reports available on covalent and non-covalent functionalization of G and GO using ionic liquids and their industrial applications. The ionic liquid-functionalized graphene (G-IL) and graphene oxide (GO-IL) are extensively used in pollutants decontamination, sensing and bio-sensing, lubrication, catalysis, and carbon dioxide capturing and hydrogen production. The G-IL and GO-IL represent an essential class of materials for versatile future applications.

Keywords

Graphene-based materials Nanomaterials Ionic liquids Sustainable chemistry Functionalization Dispersibility 

Abbreviations

G

Graphene

GO

Graphene oxide

rGO

Reduced graphene oxide

G-IL

Graphene ionic liquid

GO-IL

Graphene oxide ionic liquid

GBMs

Graphene-based materials

DCC

N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

NHS

N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

STM

Scanning tunnelling microscopy

DFT

Density functional theory

MD

Molecular dynamics

MC

Monte Carlo

PVI

Poly(1-vinylimidazole)

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

FT-IR

Fourier transform infrared

XPS

X-ray photoelectron

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

MB

Methylene blue

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

EDX

Energy-dispersive X-ray

EIS

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

GCE

Glassy carbon electrode

CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen

AFP

alpha-fetoprotein

PEMFCs

Protons exchange membrane fuel cells

AEMFCs

Anion exchange membrane fuel cells

HEG

Hydrogen-exfoliated graphene

EDC

1-Ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide

[Bmim][CH3SO3]

1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium methane sulphonate

[Bmim][PF6]

1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[Bmim][PF6]

1-Octyl, 3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[Bmim][Cl]

1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium Chloride

[Bmim][Ac]

1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium acetate

[Bmim][NTf2]

1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)amide

[NPBim][Br]

1-[3-(N-pyrrolyl) propyl]-3-butylimidazolium bromide

Notes

Acknowledgements

Chandrabhan Verma gratefully acknowledges the North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), South Africa, for providing financial supports under Post-doctoral Fellowship scheme.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesNorth-West UniversityMmabathoSouth Africa
  2. 2.Material Science Innovation and Modelling (MaSIM) Research Focus Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesNorth-West UniversityMmabathoSouth Africa

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