Although there have been many epidemiological studies of snoring, most did not assess snoring objectively. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for snoring measured objectively in a working population in Japan. We used IC recorders for the overnight tracheal sound monitoring of 191 employees of two facilities for two nights. Snoring was characterized by two variables: snoring time (%ST) as a percentage of recording time, and the mean tracheal sound energy during recording time (Leq, the equivalent sound pressure level). After excluding those with insufficient data, 172 subjects were included in the final analysis [124 men; age, 44.3 ± 9.9 years; body mass index (BMI), 22.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2]. Relationships between the two snoring variables and age, sex, BMI, drinking, smoking, and night nasal congestion were evaluated, and the predictors of snoring were identified using multiple regression analysis with %ST and Leq as the dependent variables. The mean values of %ST and Leq were 7.4 ± 7.4% and 102.1 ± 5.2 dB, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI (p < 0.001), night nasal congestion (p = 0.007), habitual drinking (p = 0.014) were significant predictors of %ST and that being male (p < 0.001) and BMI (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of Leq. These results suggested that being male, obesity, habitual alcohol consumption, and night nasal congestion are predictors of objectively measured snoring in a working population.
Snoring Tracheal sound monitoring Acoustics Predictors Working population
Snoring time as a percentage of recording time
Equivalent sound pressure level
Body mass index
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TF, HN and KY contributed to conceiving the study. TF and HN contributed to collection of data. All authors contributed to analysis and interpretation of data. TF and HN contributed to writing of the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript and approved its final version.
This was not an industry-funded study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Fukuoka National Hospital, and signed informed consent was obtained from all subjects.
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