Advertisement

Predictors of objectively measured snoring in a working population

  • Tomokazu FurukawaEmail author
  • Hiroshi Nakano
  • Kazufumi Yoshihara
  • Nobuyuki Sudo
Original Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Although there have been many epidemiological studies of snoring, most did not assess snoring objectively. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for snoring measured objectively in a working population in Japan. We used IC recorders for the overnight tracheal sound monitoring of 191 employees of two facilities for two nights. Snoring was characterized by two variables: snoring time (%ST) as a percentage of recording time, and the mean tracheal sound energy during recording time (Leq, the equivalent sound pressure level). After excluding those with insufficient data, 172 subjects were included in the final analysis [124 men; age, 44.3 ± 9.9 years; body mass index (BMI), 22.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2]. Relationships between the two snoring variables and age, sex, BMI, drinking, smoking, and night nasal congestion were evaluated, and the predictors of snoring were identified using multiple regression analysis with %ST and Leq as the dependent variables. The mean values of %ST and Leq were 7.4 ± 7.4% and 102.1 ± 5.2 dB, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI (p < 0.001), night nasal congestion (p = 0.007), habitual drinking (p = 0.014) were significant predictors of %ST and that being male (p < 0.001) and BMI (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of Leq. These results suggested that being male, obesity, habitual alcohol consumption, and night nasal congestion are predictors of objectively measured snoring in a working population.

Keywords

Snoring Tracheal sound monitoring Acoustics Predictors Working population 

Abbreviations

%ST

Snoring time as a percentage of recording time

Leq

Equivalent sound pressure level

BMI

Body mass index

TS

Tracheal sound

Notes

Author contributions

TF, HN and KY contributed to conceiving the study. TF and HN contributed to collection of data. All authors contributed to analysis and interpretation of data. TF and HN contributed to writing of the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript and approved its final version.

Funding

This was not an industry-funded study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Fukuoka National Hospital, and signed informed consent was obtained from all subjects.

References

  1. 1.
    Lee SA, Amis TC, Byth K, Larcos G, Kairaitis K, Robinson TD, Wheatley JR. Heavy snoring as a cause of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Sleep. 2008;31:1207–13.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nakano H, Furukawa T, Nishima S. Relationship between snoring sound intensity and sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4:551–6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Furukawa T, Nakano H, Hirayama K. Relationship between snoring sound intensity and daytime blood pressure. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2010;8:245–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakano H, Hirayama K, Sadamitsu Y, Shin S, Iwanaga T. Mean tracheal sound energy during sleep is related to daytime blood pressure. Sleep. 2013;36:1361–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Furukawa T, Nakano H, Yoshihara K, Sudo N. The Relationship between snoring sound intensity and morning blood pressure in workers. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12:1601–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Knuiman M, James A, Divitini M, Bartholomew H. Longitudinal study of risk factors for habitual snoring in a general adult population. Busselton Health Study Chest. 2006;130:1779–83.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bloom JW, Kaltenborn WT, Quan SF. Risk factors in a general population for snoring. Importance of cigarette smoking and obesity. Chest. 1998;93:678–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hu FB, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Speizer FE, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ. Prospective study of snoring and risk of hypertension in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:806–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lindberg E, Taube A, Janson C, Gislason T, Svärdsudd K, Boman G. A 10-year follow-up of snoring in men. Chest. 1988;114:1048–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Svensson M, Lindberg E, Naessen T, Janson C. Risk factors associated with snoring in women with special emphasis on body mass index. A population-based study. Chest. 2006;129:933–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wetter DW, Young TB, Bidwell TR, Badr MS, Palta M. Smoking as a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:2219–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin H, Ten Have T, Rein J, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in women. Effects of gender. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:608–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Battagel JM, Johal A, Kotecha B. A cephalometric comparison of subjects with snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur J Orthod. 2000;22:353–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schneider H, Grote L, Peter JH, Cassel W, Guilleminault C. The effect of triazolam and flunitrazepam—two benzodiazepines with different half-lives—on breathing during sleep. Chest. 1996;109:909–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Young T, Finn L, Palta M. Chronic nasal congestion at night is a risk factor for snoring in a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1514–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khoo SM, Tan WC, Ng TP, Ho CH. Risk factors associated with habitual snoring and sleep-disordered breathing in a multiethnic Asian population: a population-based study. Respir Med. 2004;98:557–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bearpark H, Elliott L, Grunstein R, Cullen S, Schneider H, Althaus W, Sullivan C. Snoring and sleep apnea: a population study in Australian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151:1459–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hui DSC, Chan JKW, Ho ASS, Choy DK, Lai CK, Leung RC. Prevalence of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing in a student population. Chest. 1999;116:1530–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakano H, Hayshi M, Ohshima E, Nishikata N, Shinohara T. Validation of a new system of tracheal sound analysis for the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Sleep. 2004;27:951–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nakano H, Ikeda T, Hayashi M, Ohshima E, Onizuka A. Effects of body position on snoring in apneic and nonapneic snores. Sleep. 2003;26:169–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pham NM, Nanri A, Kochi T, Kuwahara K, Tsuruoka H, Kurotani K, Akter S, Kabe I, Sato M, Hayabuchi H, Mizoue T. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with insulin resistance in Japanese adults. Metabolism. 2014;63:400–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nakamura K, Sakurai M, Morikawa Y, Miura K, Ishizaki M, Kido T, Naruse Y, Suwazono Y, Nakagawa H. Overtime work and blood pressure in normotensive Japanese male workers. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:979–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jordan AS, McEvoy RD. Gender differences in sleep apnea: epidemiology, clinical presentation and pathogenic mechanisms. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:377–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Riemann R, Volk R, Müller A, Herzog M. The influence of nocturnal alcohol ingestion on snoring. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1147–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cui R, Tanigawa T, Sakurai S, Yamagishi K, Muraki I, Imano H, Ohira T, Kiyama M, Kitamura A, Ishikawa Y, Iso H, CIRCS Investigators. Associations between alcohol consumption and sleep-disordered breathing among Japanese women. Respir Med. 2011;105:796–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Sleep Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomokazu Furukawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hiroshi Nakano
    • 1
  • Kazufumi Yoshihara
    • 2
  • Nobuyuki Sudo
    • 2
  1. 1.Sleep Disorders CenterNational Hospital Organization Fukuoka National HospitalFukuoka CityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations