Sleep and Biological Rhythms

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 423–429 | Cite as

Italian adaptation of the Insomnia Catastrophising Scale (ICS): a tool to evaluate insomnia-specific catastrophic thinking

  • Andrea Ballesio
  • Luca Mallia
  • Nicola Cellini
  • Silvia Cerolini
  • Markus Jansson-Fröjmark
  • Caterina Lombardo
Original Article


Several cognitive mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in insomnia disorder. Insomnia catastrophising thinking consists of overestimating the sleep disturbance and the related daytime impairment. The present study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the Insomnia Catastrophising Scale (ICS) in a sample of 434 university students. The ICS is a self-report tool assessing catastrophic thoughts related to nighttime (ICS-N) and daytime symptoms of insomnia (ICS-D). Participants completed the ICS as well as the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Factorial structure, internal consistency, as well as convergent and discriminant validity of the ICS scales were estimated. Further, analysis of variance and bivariate correlations were computed to explore the relationship between ICS and ISI. We showed the one-factor structure of each ICS subscale as it demonstrates their validity and reliability in assessing insomnia-specific catastrophising thinking. Finally, we demonstrated that catastrophic thinking is associated with insomnia severity. Overall, here we showed that ICS has excellent psychometric properties and our results suggest that ICS may be a useful screening tool to assess insomnia-specific catastrophic thoughts in both research and clinical practice.


Insomnia Catastrophising Validation Factor analysis 



No financial support has been received.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained by participants of the study.

Animal rights

No animal study was conducted for this article.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Sleep Research 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Ballesio
    • 1
  • Luca Mallia
    • 2
  • Nicola Cellini
    • 3
  • Silvia Cerolini
    • 1
  • Markus Jansson-Fröjmark
    • 4
  • Caterina Lombardo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Movement, Human, and Health SciencesUniversity of Rome “Foro Italico”RomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of General PsychologyUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry ResearchKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden

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