Circadian clock gene variants and insomnia, sleepiness, and shift work disorder
- 217 Downloads
Shift workers often experience circadian misalignment and problems adjusting adequately to their work schedules, which is manifested in the high prevalence rates of shift work disorder, insomnia and sleepiness in this group of workers compared to day workers. However, there exist large inter-individual differences in tolerance to shift work. We investigated whether frequency variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms capturing genetic variation in genes involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms (clock genes) was associated with insomnia, sleepiness, and shift work disorder in a sample of Norwegian nurses employed in various work schedules. Saliva samples from 691 female nurses participating in “the Survey on Shift work, Sleep and Health” were analysed for associations between genetic variations in clock genes and the nurses’ survey responses. A total of 662 single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed. After multiple testing correction, we did not observe any statistically significant associations between the genetic variants and insomnia, sleepiness, or shift work disorder.
KeywordsClock genes Single nucleotide polymorphisms Insomnia Sleepiness Shift work disorder
We acknowledge the technical support and service from the Genomics Core Facility (GCF) at the Department of Clinical Science, the University of Bergen. The “SUSSH” study received a grant from The Western Norway Regional Health Authority (no personal payment/salary). Expenses related to mailing of questionnaires were covered by The Norwegian Nurses Organization (no personal payment/salary).
- 15.Gamble KL, Motsinger-Reif AA, Hida A, Borsetti HM, Servick SV, Ciarleglio CM, Robbins S, Hicks J, Carver K, Hamilton N, Wells N, Summar ML, McMahon DG, Johnson CH. Shift work in nurses: contribution of phenotypes and genotypes to adaptation. PLoS One. 2011;6:e18395.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. 2nd ed. Westchester: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2005.Google Scholar
- 30.Christoforou A, Dondrup M, Mattingsdal M, Mattheisen M, Giddaluru S, Nothen MM, Rietschel M, Cichon S, Djurovic S, Andreassen OA, Jonassen I, Steen VM, Puntervoll P, Le Hellard S. Linkage-disequilibrium-based binning affects the interpretation of GWASs. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:727–33.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Lavebratt C, Sjöholm L, Partonen T, Schalling M, Forsell Y. PER2 variantion is associated with depression vulnerability. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;153B:570–81.Google Scholar
- 33.Soria V, Martinez-Amoros E, Escaramis G, Valero J, Perez-Egea R, Garcia C, Gutierrez-Zotes A, Puigdemont D, Bayes M, Crespo JM, Martorell L, Vilella E, Labad A, Vallejo J, Perez V, Menchon JM, Estivill X, Gratacos M, Urretavizcaya M. Differential association of circadian genes with mood disorders: CRY1 and NPAS2 are associated with unipolar major depression and CLOCK and VIP with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1279–89.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Nievergelt CM, Kripke DF, Barrett TB, Burg E, Remick RA, Sadovnick AD, McElroy SL, Keck PE Jr, Schork NJ, Kelsoe JR. Suggestive evidence for association of the circadian genes PERIOD3 and ARNTL with bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:234–41.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar