Computational Visual Media

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 267–276 | Cite as

Instantaneous foveated preview for progressive Monte Carlo rendering

  • Matias K. KoskelaEmail author
  • Kalle V. Immonen
  • Timo T. Viitanen
  • Pekka O. Jääskeläinen
  • Joonas I. Multanen
  • Jarmo H. Takala
Open Access
Research Article


Progressive rendering, for example Monte Carlo rendering of 360° content for virtual reality headsets, is a time-consuming task. If the 3D artist notices an error while previewing the rendering, they must return to editing mode, make the required changes, and restart rendering. We propose the use of eye-tracking-based optimization to significantly speed up previewing of the artist’s points of interest. The speed of the preview is further improved by sampling with a distribution that closely follows the experimentally measured visual acuity of the human eye, unlike the piecewise linear models used in previous work. In a comprehensive user study, the perceived convergence of our proposed method was 10 times faster than that of a conventional preview, and often appeared to be instantaneous. In addition, the participants rated the method to have only marginally more artifacts in areas where it had to start rendering from scratch, compared to conventional rendering methods that had already generated image content in those areas.


foveated rendering progressive rendering Monte Carlo rendering preview 360° content 



The authors would like to thank the creators of the 3D models used in the user study: Christophe Seux for Classroom, Anat Grynberg and Greg Ward for Conference, Marko Dabrovic for Sibenik (License: CC BY-NC), and Frank Meinl for Crytek Sponza (License: CC BY 3.0). In addition, the authors would like to thank Heli Väätäjä, Chelsea Kelling, and Otto Kauhanen for helpful discussions.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material, approximately 101 MB.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matias K. Koskela
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kalle V. Immonen
    • 1
  • Timo T. Viitanen
    • 1
  • Pekka O. Jääskeläinen
    • 1
  • Joonas I. Multanen
    • 1
  • Jarmo H. Takala
    • 1
  1. 1.Tampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland

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