Advertisement

arktos

, 4:11 | Cite as

New insights into sea ice changes over the past 2.2 kyr in Disko Bugt, West Greenland

  • Henriette M. Kolling
  • Ruediger Stein
  • Kirsten Fahl
  • Kerstin Perner
  • Matthias Moros
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. PAST Gateways

Abstract

Past sea ice conditions and open water phytoplankton production were reconstructed from a sediment core taken in Disko Bugt, West Greenland, using the sea ice biomarker IP25 and other specific phytoplankton biomarker (i.e., brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) records. Our biomarker record indicates that Disko Bugt experienced a gradual expansion of seasonal sea ice during the last 2.2 kyr. Maximum sea ice extent was reached during the Little Ice Age around 0.2 kyr BP. Superimposed on this longer term trend, we find short-term oscillations in open water primary production and terrigenous input, which may be related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and solar activity changes as potential climatic trigger mechanisms. A direct sample-to-sample multiproxy comparison of our new biomarker record with microfossil (i.e., benthic foraminifera, dinocysts, and diatoms) and other geochemical records (i.e., alkenone biomarkers) indicates that different proxies are influenced by the complex environmental system with pronounced seasonal changes and strong oceanographic gradients, e.g., freshwater inflow from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Differences in sea ice reconstructions may indicate that the IP25 record reflects only the relatively short sea ice season (spring), whereas other microfossil reconstructions may reflect a longer (spring–autumn) interval.

Keywords

Baffin Bay Disko Bugt Late Holocene IP25 HBI III Brassicasterol PIP25 

Introduction

Sea ice plays an important role in the climate system by influencing the Earth’s energy balance as well as the exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. It is considered as one of the critical components in climate models [140], and the underestimation of the recent sea ice loss [25, 118, 134] displays the need to extend our knowledge of natural sea ice dynamics. As reliable satellite observations are only available for the past ~ 40 years [89], high-resolution proxy reconstructions from regions characterized by highly dynamic sea ice conditions may provide vital information about pre-industrial sea ice variability.

An area that displays such seasonal sea ice variability is the Baffin Bay, especially the Disko Bugt area off central West Greenland (Fig. 1). In autumn, the sea ice margin of the so-called ‘Westice’ expands southwards and reaches as far as Kangerlussaq, close to Disko Bugt, during winter (Fig. 2; [20]). In summer, the ice margin retreats as far north as Nares Strait and leaves Disko Bugt ice free (Fig. 2; [136]). Furthermore, the ecological setting of Disko Bugt is highly affected by outlet glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet and associated meltwater input, causing a strong seasonal stratification [136].

Fig. 1

Bathymetric map of Disko Bugt, adapted from Jakobsson et al. [47] showing the present day oceanographic setting of the study area. The location of Core 343300 at the southwest edge of Egedesminde Trough and of Core 343310 in the main Egedesminde Trough is shown by red dots. The upper left map shows the oceanographic setting around Greenland. Lower right inset: Salinity and temperature profile at core site 343310 in July 2007. Abbreviations are as follows: EGC East Greenland Current, IC Irminger Current, WGC West Greenland Current, BIC Baffin Island Current, LC Labrador Current

Fig. 2

Modern, satellite measured sea ice concentrations for a winter (January–March), b spring (April–June), c summer (July–September), and d autumn (October–December) from 1978 to 2015 (in %; [24]; updated 2015) in Baffin Bay. The white diamond marks the location of Core 343310

Due to the importance of this area, several studies have focused on paleoceanographic changes (e.g., [2, 27, 60, 62, 71, 77, 80, 92, 97, 98, 105, 117]) and variations of the Greenland Ice Sheet (e.g., [147, 153]) during the mid-to-late Holocene. Within these studies, first insights into changes in sea ice conditions throughout the Holocene have been gained. However, the application of different microfossil proxies displays different inferences of sea ice conditions. This demonstrates the need for more direct proxy reconstructions of sea ice.

We provide a high-resolution sea ice reconstruction based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and contribute important information about the natural variability of sea ice in this highly sensitive region over the past 2.2 kyr. Furthermore, we compare microfossil and geochemical proxies to provide a better understanding of the relationship of those proxies to sea ice and other environmental factors.

Application of biomarkers for environmental reconstructions

Biomarker proxy for sea ice

A highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene with 25 carbon atoms (i.e., IP25) has been proven as a useful proxy for sea ice reconstructions in the Northern Hemisphere [9]. Produced by specific sea ice diatoms [9, 18], IP25 serves as a presence/absence indicator for spring sea ice. For more detailed interpretations of past sea ice conditions, Müller et al. [83] have introduced the so-called ‘PIP25 index’ (see “Materials and methods” for calculation). This index combines open water phytoplankton biomarker proxies with the sea ice proxy IP25. This approach also avoids the misleading interpretations concerning the absence of IP25, which may result either from a lack of sea ice or a permanent, thick sea ice cover with limited light penetration for ice algae growth [42]. As open water phytoplankton marker serve brassicasterol and dinosterol produced by a wide range of algae groups (e.g., [144, 145]). These sterols have commonly been used in the original work by Müller et al. [83], to calculate the PBIP25 and PDIP25, respectively (for calculation see Chap. 3.3.). When applying the PIP25 index for sea ice reconstruction, however, individual biomarker concentrations still need to be considered, as in-phase changes to high (associated with marginal sea ice conditions) or low (associated with permanent sea ice cover) concentrations of IP25 and the open water phytoplankton marker may result in a similar PIP25 index [83].

Despite these limitations, comparisons with satellite-derived values from the East Greenland Shelf and Fram Strait [83], Barents Sea [85], and the central Arctic Ocean [150, 152] verified that the IP25/PIP25 approach represents modern sea ice concentration quite well in.

Furthermore, this approach has been successfully applied to reconstruct past sea ice conditions for the Holocene time period in North Atlantic regions, i.e., the Barents Sea [12, 13, 57, 139], the East Greenland and North Iceland Shelves [1, 3, 21, 28, 59, 73, 149], the Fram Strait [22, 81, 84] and Labrador Sea [94], the Arctic Ocean and Eurasian marginal seas [34, 43, 100], the Canadian Arctic Archipelago [11, 99, 138] and the North Pacific [113]. On Quaternary interglacial and glacial time scales, sea ice conditions have been reconstruct based on the IP25/PIP25 approach in the North Atlantic [23, 39, 82], the Arctic Ocean [44, 64, 128, 129, 130, 131, 151] and the North Pacific [74]. The oldest studies so far applied the IP25/PIP25 approach in Pliocene sediments from the Iceland Sea [26] and Miocene sediments from the central Arctic Ocean [133].

Recently, Smik et al. [125] have introduced a tri-unsaturated HBI alkene (HBI III, C25:3, Z-isomer) as a possible more suitable open water phytoplankton biomarker for the PIP25 calculation (resulting in the PIIIIP25 index). HBI III is produced by marine open water diatoms, presumably by diatoms of the genera Pleurosigma and Rhizosolenia [7, 112] and highest abundances have been observed close to the marginal ice zone [6, 8; 8]. So far, however, the relation of sedimentary HBI III concentrations to modern sea ice conditions and its use in the PIP25 calculation (resulting in the PIIIIP25 index) have only been tested in sedimentary records from the Barents Sea and its northern continental margin [8, 125] and in East Greenland fjord sediments [104]. For paleo sea ice reconstructions, the PIIIIP25 index revealed reliable sea ice reconstructions from the Central Arctic Ocean [64, 132] and Barents Sea [12].

In the Baffin Bay, however, this biomarker approach has only been applied in sediments from the last century Cormier et al. [27] and from the last glacial maximum [48].

Biomarker proxies for organic carbon sources

Specific biomarkers have been associated with terrigenous and marine organic matter input in paleoenvironmental reconstructions (e.g., [32, 75, 127]). Long chain n-alkanes (C25, C27, C29, C31) and lignin are established proxies for the reconstruction of organic matter input from vascular plants (e.g., [101, 154]). Despite being found in a number of diatoms [102, 142], β-sitosterol and campesterol are especially associated with terrestrial sources, i.e., vascular land plants [111, 143, 144] and have been successfully applied for biomarker reconstructions of terrigenous input (e.g., [31, 32, 33, 44, 150, 151]).

For marine organic matter production reconstructions, specific short-chained n-alkanes (C17, C19; [15, 101, 154]) and short-chain fatty acids (e.g., [29, 31, 86, 145]) have been successfully applied. Here, we use the sterols brassicasterol and dinosterol, which have been established as reliable phytoplankton biomarker proxies (e.g., [144, 145]).

Environmental setting

Baffin Bay is strongly influenced by the West Greenland Current (WGC), which is composed of Atlantic/Irminger Current (IC) derived waters and waters of Polar/East Greenland Current (EGC) origin (Fig. 1; [136]). The WGC inflow to Disko Bugt occurs mainly in the southern part of the bay, whereas the outflow occurs predominantly via the Vaigat Strait in the northern part of the bay (Fig. 1). The WGC penetrates deeper parts of the fjords and affects subglacial melting of tidewater glaciers (Fig. 1; [40, 108]).

The bay is characterized by seasonal sea ice and is influenced by two different types of sea ice [20]. Multiyear ice, the so-called ‘Storis’ originates in the Arctic Ocean and is transported, along with polar waters, by the EGC around Cape Farewell and then carried northward with the WGC [19]. The amount of ‘Storis’ reaching Baffin Bay is determined by the sea ice formation in the Arctic Ocean, outflow intensity via Fram Strait and conditions in the Greenland Sea [20]. The second kind of sea ice is first-year ice, the ‘Westice’, which starts to form in northern Baffin Bay in September, expands southwards and reaches its maximum extent in March/April. Then, almost the entire Baffin Bay, except eastern Davis Strait, is covered by sea ice [16, 54].

Our study site, the Disko Bugt, is a large open bay (40,000 km2) off central West Greenland (Fig. 1). It is located at the southern boundary of seasonal ice coverage in Baffin Bay and is highly sensitive to changes in sea ice extent. At present, Disko Bugt is covered by seasonal land-fast sea ice for 3–5 months per year with a mean thickness of ca. 70 cm [20, 87, 106]. Over the last 20 years, milder winter temperatures have caused a reduction of the seasonal sea ice cover of Disko Bugt from 5 to 3 months per year [87, 122].

Disko Bugt can be considered as a highly productive low arctic marine environment. Phytoplankton activity in Godthåbsfjord, south of our study site, is characterized by three annual maxima, during spring, mid-summer, and autumn, with seasonal changes in the phytoplankton community typical for low Arctic environments [51]. Haptophytes and diatoms are the dominant phytoplankton species throughout the year, with haptophytes dominating from March–July and diatoms being dominant in July [51]. Other phytoplankton groups, i.e., dinoflagellates, ciliates, chrysiophytes, and silicoflagellates, are also observed during winter [51].

Surface water salinities and temperatures in Disko Bugt are influenced by seasonal changes of meltwater fluxes and icebergs from outlet glaciers (e.g., Jakobshavn Isbrae) and sea ice cover [20, 36, 40]. Sea ice cover limits the light availability in surface waters and thus phytoplankton production [36]. In spring, the combination of sea ice break-up, which improves light conditions, and a remaining stratification of the water column, with nutrient enriched surface waters, favour the spring plankton bloom [36]. During summer meltwater inflow from the Greenland Ice Sheet and melting sea ice create a fresh water lens in the upper 20–30 m of the water column [4]. A strong seasonal shift in stratification is caused by enhanced wind activity during autumn and favors a well-mixed upper water layer [4].

Materials and methods

Material

Sediments were collected in June 2007 from southwestern Disko Bugt (Fig. 1; 68° 38′N, 53°49′W; water depth: 855 m) from Egedesminde Dyb, during Cruise MSM05/03 of the R/V Maria S. Merian [37]. Sediments consist of olive brown to olive grey organic rich silty clay with occasional shell fragments. The gravity core (GC 343310-5-1; 940 cm) was sampled at 1 cm steps; the multi core (MUC 343310-2-2; 32 cm) was sampled at 0.5 cm. This study uses the upper 580.5 cm of the gravity core and five selected samples of the multi-core in a composite record referred to as Core 343310. Sediments were stored at 4 °C, and samples were taken and freeze-dried in 2011 and stored at 4 °C until geochemical analysis in 2016.

Chronology

A robust age model was established based on 20 AMS 14C dates for the gravity core and 10 AMS 14C dates for the multi core, from benthic foraminifera and mollusc shells (Supplementary Fig. 2; [71, 98]). Ages were calibrated with Marine 09 [103] using OxCal 4.1 [17] and a marine reservoir age of ΔR = 140 ± 35 years. In addition, the age model of the multi-core was complemented with 210Pb/137Cs measurements [71]. Due to gravity coring disturbance and sediment loss, there is a gap of ~ 100 years between the gravity and multi core. Further details about the age control are given by Perner et al. [98] and Lloyd et al. [71].

Methods

The analysis of surface sediments and Core 343310 was carried out on freeze-dried and homogenised sediment. The sediment was analysed for total organic carbon (TOC) content and concentrations of IP25, HBI III, brassicasterol, dinosterol, β-sitosterol and campesterol (Table 1).

Table 1

Compounds and their source used in this study

Compounds

Short name

Sources

References

2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpent-4-enyl)pentadecane

IP25

Sea ice diatoms; Pleurosigma stuxbergii var. rhomboides; Haslea crucigeroides (and/or Haslea spicula); Haslea kjellmanii

[9, 18]

2,10,14-Trimethyl-6-enyl-7-(3-methylpent-1-enyl)pentadecene

HBI II

Uncertain

[5, 38, 53, 73, 135, 138, 155]

(9Z)-2,6,10,14-Tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpent-4-enyliden)pentadeca-9-en

HBI III

polar and sub-polar marine diatoms, i.e., Rhizosolenia

[6, 7]

24-methylcholesta-5, 22E-dien-3β-ol

Brassicasterol

Marine and freshwater phytoplankton

[10, 86, 154]

4 α, 23, 24 trimethyl-5α-cholest-22E-en- 3β -ol

Dinosterol

Marine and freshwater phytoplankton (dinoflagellates)

[86, 144, 145]

24-ethylcholest-5-en-3β-ol

β-sitosterol

Predominantly terrestrial plants

[14, 45, 46, 145]

24-methylcholest-5en-3β-ol

Campesterol

Predominantly terrestrial plants

[14, 45, 46, 145]

Homogenised subsamples (0.1 g) were analysed for TOC content with a carbon–sulphur determinator (ELTRA CS-125).

Prior to the extraction, two internal standards, 7-HND (7-hexylnonadecane, 0.076 µg/sample) and cholesterol-D6 (cholest-5-en-3β-ol-D6, 11 µg/sample), were added for quantification purposes. The samples were extracted with an Accelerated Solvent Extractor (DIONEX, ASE 200; 100 °C, 5 min, 1000 psi). About 3–5 g of sediment was extracted using dichloromethane:methanol (2:1 vol/vol) as solvent.

The extracts were separated into different fractions by open-column chromatography, with SiO2 as stationary phase. As solvent n-hexane (5 ml) was used for IP25, and ethylacetate:n-hexane (20:80 vol/vol; 7 ml) for sterols. The sterol fraction was silylated using 200 µl BSTFA (60 °C, 2 h).

Hydrocarbon concentrations were identified with a gas chromatograph Agilent Technologies 7890 GC (30 m HP-1MS column, 0.25 mm in diameter and 0.25 µm film thickness) coupled to an Agilent Technologies 5977 A mass selective detector. Sterol concentrations were identified with a gas chromatograph Agilent Technologies 6850 GC (30 m HP-1MS column, 0.25 mm in diameter, and 0.25 µm film thickness) coupled to an Agilent Technologies 5975 A mass selective detector. The individual compounds were identified by comparing the retention times with those of reference compounds. IP25 and HBI III (IP25: m/z 350; HBI III: m/z 348) were quantified in relation with the abundant fragment ion m/z 266 of the internal standard 7-hexylnonadecane. The sterols were quantified as trimethylsilyl ethers (brassicasterol: m/z 470, campesterol:m/z 472, β-sitosterol: m/z 486, dinosterol: m/z 500) with respect to the molecular ion of cholest-5-en-3b-ol-D6 (ion m/z 464). A detailed description of the quantification methods is given by Fahl and Stein [34]. The concentrations of all biomarkers have been normalised to the amount of sediment and TOC. As both show nearly the same signal and variability, we only present the data normalised to the amount of TOC referred to as µg/gTOC in the main text. Data normalised to the amount of sediment (µg/gSed) are shown in Supplementary Fig. 3. Instrument stability was controlled by several reruns of external standards (cholesterol-D6, 7-HND, reference sediment) several times during one analytical sequence and by replicate analyses for random samples.

The PIP25 indices were calculated after Müller et al. [85], using the following equation:
$${\text{PI}}{{\text{P}}_{{\text{25}}}}\,=\,{\text{I}}{{\text{P}}_{{\text{25}}}}/{\text{ }}({\text{I}}{{\text{P}}_{{\text{25}}}}+{\text{ }}({\text{phytoplankton marker}} \times c))$$
(1)
where c is a balance factor, calculated by the ratio of mean IP25 concentration to mean phytoplankton marker concentration, to counterbalance the higher concentrations of sterols compared to IP25. As open water phytoplankton markers brassicasterol dinosterol and HBI III were used to calculate PBIP25, PDIP25, and PIIIIP25 indices, respectively.

For a statistic analysis of short-term oscillations, a MatLab code was applied to detrend the original data, and the BTuckey function of AnalySeries [93] was applied to produce a spectrum of the oscillations (confidence 90%, bandwidth: 0.1).

All data are available on  https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.885107.

Results

Throughout the last 2.2 kyr the TOC contents in Core 343310 showed strong fluctuations on decadal scales ranging from 2.6 to 1.6%, averaging around ~ 2% (Fig. 3f). Overall, IP25 concentrations remained relatively low and constant until 1.2 kyr BP, followed by a gradual increase (Fig. 3e). The lowest concentrations, around 0.06 µg/gTOC, are observed in the lowermost core section from 2.2 to 1.5 kyr BP (Fig. 3e). In the upper core section, IP25 concentrations increased and reached high and variable concentrations around 0.4 kyr BP, with the highest concentrations ~ 0.2 kyr BP (~ 0.9 µg/gTOC; Fig. 3e). HBI III concentrations were low (~ 0.05 µg/gTOC) from 2.2 to 0.2 kyr BP, after which concentrations increased to maximum values of 1.8 µg/gTOC (Fig. 3d). Phytoplankton sterols, brassicasterol, and dinosterol showed strong decadal fluctuations ranging from 13 to 86 µg/gTOC and 3 to 71 µg/gTOC, respectively (Fig. 3b, c). Phases with enhanced sterols concentrations occured from 1.8 to 1.6 kyr (50 µg/gTOC and 55 µg/gTOC, respectively), from 0.8 to 0.7 kyr BP (86 µg/gTOC and 71 µg/gTOC, respectively), and from 0.15 kyr BP onwards (81 µg/gTOC and 50 µg/gTOC, respectively; Fig. 3b, c). Campesterol + β-sitosterol showed the lowest concentrations (~ 50 µg/gTOC) from 2.2 to 1.2 kyr BP, with a pronounced peak ~ 1.4 kyr BP (reaching 187 µg/gTOC; Fig. 3a). From 1.0 to 0.6 kyr BP, the highest concentrations were observed with maximum values of ~ 300 µg/gTOC. After 0.6 kyr, concentrations decreased and reach values of ~ 75 µg/gTOC (Fig. 3a).

Fig. 3

Geochemical results of Core 343310. Biomarker concentrations a campesterol + β-sitosterol, b brassicasterol, c dinosterol, d HBI III, e IP25 (all in µg/gTOC), f total organic carbon content (TOC in %) and g sedimentation rates (in cm/yr). All plots are shown vs. age before present (kyr BP), an additional age scale shows calendar ages Common Era (CE). Black dots represent AMS 14 C ages, grey dots indicate 210Pb/137Cs measurements. RWP Roman Warm Period, DACP Dark Ages Cold Period, MCA Medieval Climate Anomaly, LIA Little Ice Age. Blue triangles indicates glacier advances on Greenland [69]. From the HBI III record, 60 samples were excluded due to high sulphur content

During the last 0.1 kyr, all biomarker concentrations showed an increase, brassicasterol and HBI III reach maximum values in the uppermost sample (80 µg/gTOC and 1.8 µg/gTOC, respectively; Fig. 3b, d).

Superimposed on the general trend, brassicasterol, dinosterol, and campesterol + β-sitosterol concentrations show a high variability on a decadal time scale (Fig. 3a–c).

Discussion

Sea ice variability in Disko Bugt over the past 2.2 kyr BP

Our biomarker record provides a new and more direct sea ice reconstruction than the previous microfossil reconstructions. This helps to improve the interpretation of ecological changes and to identify the driving mechanisms of sea ice changes in Disko Bugt over the past two millennia, a time span with several well-known short-term climate events (e.g., [67, 68, 72]). Furthermore, paleoenvironmental conditions have previously been reconstructed applying a variety of microfossil proxies and alkenone geochemistry on Core 343310 [2, 60, 80, 98, 105]. This wide range of proxy records provides an ideal basis for comparing microfossil and geochemical proxies, which were derived from the same sediment material.

In general, our biomarker-based sea ice reconstruction indicates a gradual increase of seasonal sea ice concentration over the past 2.2 kyr BP (Fig. 4c, d). We use the PIP25 index to receive more information on past sea ice conditions. The phytoplankton sterols brassicasterol and dinosterol have a similar relationship to IP25 as indicated in the initial study of Müller et al. [83] and can be related to their classifications regarding sea ice conditions (Fig. 5). The resulting PBIP25 (using brassicasterol) and PDIP25 (using dinosterol) indices reveal very similar results for sea ice reconstructions (see Supplementary Fig. 4). The relationship of the phytoplankton marker HBI III and IP25, however, seems to be more complex, which hampers a clear categorization based on Müller et al. [83]. Hence, a direct relation of the resulting PIIIIP25 index (shown in Supplementary Fig. 4) to sea ice concentration in Baffin Bay remains uncertain. Therefore, we focus on the PDIP25 and PBIP25 index for indications on sea ice concentration in the following discussion. As they show nearly identical results, only the PDIP25 index it used for interpretations.

Fig. 4

Comparison of different proxies from Disko Bugt against age (kyr BP) with an additional scale for calendar years (in CE). a Modeled NAO modes [137] and b atmospheric temperatures derived from the GISP2 ice core (°C; [60]). Sea ice related proxies: c IP25 concentrations (µg/TOC; this study) d sea ice index PDIP25 (this study), e reconstructed April sea ice concentrations (SIC) from diatoms (%; [61]), f abundances of sea-ice-associated diatoms (%; [60]) and g principal component analysis based on dinoflagellates correlating with sea ice [105]. Surface water proxies: Concentrations of phytoplankton sterols h brassicasterol and i dinosterol and j terrigenous sterol concentrations (all in µg/TOC; this study), k alkenone C37:4 (%, [80]) and l alkenone index UK37 [80]. Bottom water proxies: m Atlantic water benthic foraminifera and n Arctic water agglutinated benthic foraminifera (both in %; [98]). RWP Roman Warm Period, DACP Dark Ages Cold Period, MCA Medieval Climate Anomaly, LIA Little Ice Age. Blue triangles indicates glacier advances on Greenland [69]

Fig. 5

Correlation of IP25 with a brassicasterol, b dinosterol and c HBI III (in µg/gTOC) from core 343310. Different symbols are explained in the legend, they indicate the time intervals: Roman Warm Period (RWP), Dark Ages Cold Period (DACP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), and Little Ice Age (LIA). The classification of the different sea ice scenarios refers to Müller et al. [83]. There is no clear correlation of (c) IP25 to HBI III comparable to assumptions and the categorizations of Müller et al. [83] in regard to the sea ice index PIIIIP25

The Roman Warm Period (2.2–1.7 kyr BP)

Based on previous proxy reconstructions from Core 343310 the time period from 2.2 to 1.7 kyr BP has been characterized by reduced sea ice conditions (Fig. 7e, f; [60]) and a gradual surface and subsurface warming associated to high contributions of Atlantic derived waters to the WGC (Fig. 4n; [98]). Strong Atlantic Water inflow has been related to favour subsurface melting of Greenland outlet glaciers causing the observed high meltwater contribution to the marine environment which has been associated with the reconstructed reduction in SSTs at our core site (Fig. 4k, l; [80]).

Our biomarker data suggest low sea ice algae productivity and reduced sea ice conditions at the mouth of Disko Bugt, which is evident from low IP25 concentration and relatively low PDIP25 values (Fig. 4c, d). This strengthens findings from dinocyst sea ice reconstructions, characterizing this time period by winter-only sea ice [2]. Further supporting previous assumptions of Krawczyk et al. [60], peaks in open water phytoplankton sterols, i.e., brassicasterol and dinosterol, around 1.75 kyr BP (Fig. 4h, i), may be related to variable environmental conditions and a strong spring/summer stratification. A pronounced stratification of the upper water column is associated with favourable nutrient conditions, beneficial conditions for phytoplankton blooms [36], which may be represented in high phytoplankton concentrations during this time.

The period between 2.2 and 1.2 kyr BP, with lower than modern sea ice conditions in Disko Bugt (Fig. 6b), coincides with generally warm conditions over the Greenland Ice Sheet (Fig. 4b; [58]). A phase of relative atmospheric warming has been observed in NW Europe, termed the Roman Warm Period (RWP; 1.65–1.94 kyr BP; [70]). This characteristic warming and reduction of sea ice during the RWP has been recorded in several records along the West Greenland coast (e.g., [30, 58, 67, 117]), the Canadian Arctic [11] as well as the East Greenland Shelf, North Iceland and the northern North Atlantic [21, 49, 78, 95, 96, 109, 123, 146, 79, 21, 95, 96], which indicates that this warming is at least of a wider regional scale in the northern Hemisphere.

Fig. 6

Schematic illustration of possible sea ice conditions based on biomarker records. The development of seasonal light conditions, bloom development and downward export of sea ice algae derived IP25 (green arrows) and open water phytoplankton sterol brassicasterol (red arrows) in Disko Bugt during the past 2.2 kyr BP are indicated. a Possible conditions during the last ~ 0.3 kyr (0.2 years BP to present) with the sea ice present in Disko Bugt until late spring with high daylight hours, which favors IP25 production. And b possible conditions before 0.3 years BP (2.2–0.3 years BP), with lower-than present sea ice conditions. Sea ice may have only been present until early spring with low light availability, hampering IP25 production. The width of the arrows indicates the amount of deposited specific biomarkers.

Modified from Wassmann et al. [146]

The Dark Ages Cold Period (1.7–1.2 kyr BP)

Based on foraminiferal assemblages, the core site at Disko Bugt was characterized by a gradual cooling and an increasing contribution of polar EGC waters advected to the WGC during the interval from 1.8 kyr BP onwards (Fig. 4n, m; [98]). However, surface water proxies, i.e., diatoms and dinocysts, reveal contradictory surface water conditions. Whilst diatom assemblages indicate a gradual warming of surface waters around 1.7 kyr BP and only a minor increase in sea ice conditions (Fig. 4e, f; [60, 61]) dinocyst reconstructions point towards a gradual cooling with reduced sea ice conditions (Fig. 4g) and relatively high phytoplankton productivity [105]. However, recent dinocyst reconstructions indicate a major change in surface water conditions at ~ 1.5 kyr BP towards cooler conditions and prolonged sea ice cover (up to 8 month/year; [2]).

Our new biomarker record supports a slight increase in sea ice conditions at the core site from 1.7 to 1.2 kyr BP, indicated by a minor increase in IP25 concentrations and PIP25 values (Fig. 4c, d), similar to findings from diatom assemblages (Fig. 4e, f; [60, 61]). Increased sedimentation rates and higher terrigenous sterol concentrations are observed during this interval (Figs. 3g, 4j). This may be related to a re-advance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Fig. 4; [69, 116]) with higher glacial activity resulting in an increased input of terrigenous material. Open water phytoplankton sterol concentrations do not indicate major changes in open water phytoplankton production, compared to the previous RWP (Fig. 4h, i), which is contradictory to findings from dinocyst assemblages [105]. However, as previously discussed, phytoplankton proxies and their signals may be strongly influenced by water mass composition and water column structure/stratification, caused especially by changes in meltwater supply [80] which could account for the observed differences.

The minor increase of sea ice conditions and terrigenous input (Fig. 4c, d, j) correlates with the NW European Dark Ages Cold Period (DACP, 1.65–1.15 kyr BP; [70]). The findings from our new biomarker record strengthen earlier assumptions of several Disko Bugt records, which characterise the DACP as a phase of surface water cooling and propose an increase in sea ice [77, 92, 117, 120], which has been related to an increased EGC contribution and a relative reduction of IC waters to the WGC [97, 98].

The Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.2–0.7 kyr BP)

The period from 1.2 to 0.7 kyr BP was characterized by a slight subsurface warming [98]. Reconstructions of surface water conditions reveal inconsistent results; diatom assemblages point towards a cooling and increasing sea ice concentrations during this period (Fig. 4e, f; [60]), whereas dinocyst only indicate cool SSTs and relatively high sea ice conditions until 0.9 kyr BP followed by warmer SSTs and decreasing sea ice conditions until 0.7 kyr BP (Fig. 4g; [105]). However, both surface water proxies point towards high but variable freshwater input from adjacent glaciers and melting sea ice which is supported by alkenone reconstructions [60, 80, 105].

Our biomarker records show a gradual increase in IP25 concentration and the PIP25 index, which may point towards a gradual increase in sea ice algae productivity and sea ice concentration from 1.2 to 0.7 kyr BP (Fig. 4c, d). This indicates a minor increase in seasonal sea ice conditions, conceivably related to a temporal extent of ‘Westice’, an extension of land-fast ice out of Disko Bugt or increased drift ice transport by the EGC. An increase in sea ice conditions may have caused a longer period of favourable light conditions and sea ice habitat for sea ice algae bloom (Fig. 6a, b), which supports findings from dinocyst reconstructions [2].

HBI III concentrations show a minor increase, however, remaining at very low concentrations (Fig. 3d). Based on assumptions of Belt et al. [8], such low levels may indicate that a prolonged, high productivity ice edge was not established. The role of the HBI III is not yet fully understood, which makes it difficult to interpret this slight increase in concentration.

Open water phytoplankton productivity, as indicated by brassicasterol and dinosterol concentrations (Fig. 4h, i), remains relatively high and variable, which supports findings from dinocyst reconstructions [105]. Variable phytoplankton production may be related to the continuous unstable environmental conditions as indicated by alkenone reconstructions showing variable meltwater inflow and associated changes in surface SST (Fig. 4k, l; [80]). These highly variable seasonal environmental conditions may have affected diatoms and dinocysts and caused the inconsistent (sea ice) signals reflected in their paleorecords from Core 343310 (Fig. 4 e–g; [2, 60, 80, 105]).

This phase of slightly enhanced sea ice conditions corresponds with an atmospheric warming over Greenland (Fig. 4b; [58]) and encompasses the European Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1.0–0.75 kyr BP; [65]). Nevertheless, our biomarker record does not indicate a reduction of sea ice that can be associated with the atmospheric warming during the MCA. At Disko Bugt, such a warming has only been recorded in bottom water proxies, i.e., benthic foraminifera (Fig. 4m, n; [98]), whereas surface proxies, such as dinoflagellates and diatoms, support a cooling trend (Fig. 4e–g, e.g., 60, 77, 117, 105]). An extent of sea ice during the MCA, indicated in our biomarker data, may be linked to a general change in oceanography, e.g., an intensification of Arctic outflow via the EGC and Baffin Island Current (BIC), transporting colder, polar water masses to the area. Evidence for a strengthening of the EGC and a southward migration of the sub-arctic front as well as a reduction in SSTs during this time has been found at Reykjanes Ridge [95, 126]. Furthermore, a lack of surface warming during the MCA in the Labrador Sea has been attributed to a constant strong Labrador Current (LC) along the Canadian coast over the past 1.6 kyr [55, 107]. The LC originates from the BIC and WGC, which may point towards a strong Arctic contribution from both currents. The combination of enhanced cold Arctic water inflow from the Northwest and the South to Baffin Bay may have caused the south-eastward expansion of ‘Westice’ [20]. Sea ice reconstruction from the Canadian Arctic, located at the gateway from the Arctic Ocean to Baffin Bay, supports a gradual increase of sea ice algae productivity during this phase [11].

The Little Ice Age (0.7–0.2 kyr BP)

For the period from 0.7 to 0.2 kyr BP, benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate increasing contributions of EGC to the WGC, accompanied with a subsurface cooling at the investigated core site (Fig. 4m, n; [98]). Surface conditions are, based on dinocysts, characterized by cooler SSTs, extensive sea ice cover (Fig. 4g), reduced phytoplankton production, and lowered terrigenous input [105]. Further alkenone reconstructions point towards low meltwater inflow and cold SSTs (Fig. 4k, l; [80]). Conversely, diatom reconstructions indicate a reducing trend in SSTs and sea ice over the course of the last 0.7 kyr (Fig. 4e, f; [60, 61]).

Our biomarker record supports harsher sea ice conditions, possibly similar to conditions as observed today (Fig. 6b), indicated by strong increased in IP25 concentration and the PDIP25 index (Fig. 4c, d). Based on assumptions of Belt et al. [8], increasing HBI III concentrations (Fig. 3d) may indicate the presence of an ice edge at or close to our core site during spring. Relatively stable but variable phytoplankton sterol concentrations support the previous findings of variable environmental conditions [80]. The relative reduction of meltwater inflow and a subsequent increase SSTs, as reconstructed from alkenones [80], has been associated with the signal preserved in diatom reconstructions [60, 61, 80]. This demonstrates again that different proxies seem to be affected in a different way by certain environmental conditions.

This time interval is characterized by a decrease of air temperatures over Greenland (Fig. 4b; [58]) and advances of the Greenland Ice Sheet and its outlet glaciers, e.g., Jakobshavn Isbræ (Fig. 4; [69, 71]). This atmospheric cooling likely favoured the development of maximum sea ice concentrations (Fig. 4d) and possibly the establishment of an ice edge until late spring, with favourable light conditions for IP25 production, in the Disko Bugt area (Fig. 6a). The strongest increase in sea ice algae production and sea ice concentration, indicated by our biomarker record (Fig. 4c, d), correlates with the maximum of the Little Ice Age (LIA; [70]) around 0.2 kyr BP. Such a cooling and increase in sea ice conditions has been recorded along the West Greenland coast [27, 50, 110, 119], North Iceland [21, 52, 73] and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago [11, 138] and seems to represent a widespread climatic phenomenon.

The extent of sea ice during the LIA may be related to a general increase in subsurface EGC contribution to the WGC [98], causing a general cooling of subsurface water masses in the area. In addition, a dominant westward Transpolar Drift, generating a strong cold LC inflow into Baffin Bay [55], may have favoured the temporal expansion of ‘Westice’. The onset of the widely recorded LIA has been associated with shifts in the NAO (Fig. 4a, e.g., [123, 137]) and an increase in volcanic activity, which may have caused a short time reduction in atmospheric temperature, which itself may set off a sea ice feedback [58, 76].

The last century

A reduction in sea ice concentrations and a strong increase in phytoplankton productivity are observed after 0.2 kyr BP (Fig. 4c, d, h, i). The youngest samples seem to indicate a strong increase of ice algae and phytoplankton productivity (Fig. 4c, d, h, i). Findings from microfossils from our study site support a general reduction in sea ice during the last 0.2 kyr (Fig. 4e, f, g; [2, 60, 107]) and are in line with a general increase in atmospheric temperatures observed at the coast of Disko Bugt, e.g., in Ilulisaat [141]. This warming has been associated with a decrease in mean annual sea ice cover since the 1990s [87]. Due to the low sample resolution in our biomarker record, a detailed interpretation is not possible for this time period.

Cyclicity and driving mechanisms of sea ice conditions in Disko Bugt

Microfossil records from Disko Bugt and West Greenland sites found in parts of the late Holocene an antiphase correlation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) modes observed in the North Atlantic, i.e., a cooling during the positive NAO mode associated with the MCA and a warming during the negative NAO mode correlating with the LIA (Fig. 4a, e, f, g; [60, 63, 105, 117]). Our IP25 sea ice record does not reflect such an anti-correlation in sea ice variability (Fig. 4a, c, d). It rather reflects a general increase in temporal sea ice extend parallel decreasing solar summer insolation associated with the Neoglacial cooling. The cooling culminates in the Little Ice Age. It should be noted that NAO reconstructions are still subject to discussion and the exact timing of late Holocene shifts in this atmospheric system are debated [35, 90, 91, 137].

We find evidence for the sensitivity of open water phytoplankton productivity and terrigenous input into Disko Bugt to the general oceanic circulation changes applying spectral analysis (Fig. 7). We identify a 63–90-year cycle in phytoplankton and terrigenous biomarker concentrations during the last 2.2 kyr (90% confidence; Fig. 7). In line with our findings, dinocyst reconstructions from Core 343310 [2] and a study focussing on the driving mechanisms of sea ice formation changes off West Greenland in a diatom record [121] both identify a very similar cyclicity, i.e., 60–70 and 50–70 years, respectively. This cycle has previously been associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) frequency of ~ 50 to 70 years [56]. In our IP25 sea ice record, we could not find evidence for such a cyclicity, which may be related to the relatively short sea ice season (spring) at the entrance of Disko Bugt during the investigated time period, whereas other phytoplankton biomarkers and microfossils reflect a longer season (spring, summer, and autumn; [51]).

Fig. 7

Comparison of the band-pass filtered 69 year cycle (black) and the linear detrended a campesterol + β-sitosterol, b dinosterol, and c brassicasterol records (red) (confidence 99%) of Core 343310 over the past 2.2 kyr. (d) Spectrum of spectral analysis, the frequency of the 69–62 and 90 year cycles are indicated by black arrows

AMO variability has been linked to solar activity changes [56]. Changes in incoming radiation may influence sea ice extent and the Greenland Ice Sheet behaviour [114] and consequently affect the freshwater discharge/inflow [115] and nutrient availability to the area. A self-amplifying system may have caused the environmental changes observed in Disko Bugt area as follows: solar triggered Arctic sea ice melt [114] increases freshwater supply towards the North Atlantic causing a reduction in sub-polar gyre activity and AMO [41, 115] as described by Sha et al. [121]. This may in turn cause distinct changes in WGC composition and meltwater supply from the Greenland Ice Sheet that affects phytoplankton blooms in West Greenland.

However, others argue for volcanic eruptions being the main trigger for the aforementioned sea ice feedback mechanism (e.g., [58, 76, 124]) that led to cold events, such as the LIA, during the late Holocene. It remains unclear whether there is a single mechanism that drives the sea ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere or if a combination of external and internal forcing’s and feedbacks, that may differ for certain time intervals, caused changes in atmospheric and oceanic systems that may have led to an expansion/reduction of sea ice extent during the late Holocene in Baffin Bay (cf. [58]).

Environmental reconstructions: biomarkers vs. microfossils

For Core 343310, a great variety of proxies have been compiled from the same sample set (for an overview see [80]), which provides ideal conditions for a direct proxy-to-proxy comparison that allows to gain further information about the correlation between microfossils and geochemical sea ice proxies and environmental factors controlling the signal formation (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8

Correlations of specific biomarkers and microfossil proxies. a Atlantic water benthic foraminifera (%; [98]) vs. IP25 (µg/TOC). b sea-ice-associated diatoms (%; [60]) vs. IP25 (µg/TOC). c MAT diatom sea ice reconstruction (%; [61]) vs. PDIP25

Regarding sea ice-related proxies, we find implications for a negative correlation between IP25 and the Atlantic/IC benthic foraminifera group (r2 = 0.54; Fig. 8a). The negative correlation can be explained by the oceanographic setting of Disko Bugt. The regional oceanography is controlled by the composition of the WGC, higher contributions of IC derived Atlantic waters, and associated subsurface warming may influence sea ice conditions, and, therefore, IP25 production. Furthermore, a stronger IC/weaker EGC contribution to the WGC off West Greenland has been associated with atmospheric and oceanic warming [97, 98, 117].

Sea ice diatoms have commonly been used for sea ice reconstructions along West Greenland (e.g., [50, 60, 63, 77]). Recently, Krawczyk et al. [61] found a correlation of sea-ice-associated diatoms to satellite-derived April sea ice conditions in surface sediments, collected along the West Greenland shelf. In our downcore record, IP25 and sea-ice-associated diatoms do not show a direct correlation (r2 = 0.12; Fig. 8b). In the previous studies, the diatoms included in the sea-ice-associated assemblage were only indirectly connected to the ice habitat, mainly by environmental conditions found close to sea ice, e.g., meltwater, low SSTs [60], whereas IP25 is produced by diatoms living inside the sea ice [18]. These different habitats, different bloom seasons (spring-only, spring–autumn), and different factors controlling the abundance of the specific diatoms may cause the different signals recorded by the different proxies.

No correlation between PDIP25 and the MAT diatoms sea ice reconstruction (Fig. 8c; r2 = 0.01; [61]) could be found. Hence, we assume that this may be caused by different environmental factors controlling sea ice associated and IP25 producing diatoms. It may be possible that sea-ice-associated diatoms and IP25 producers reflect different seasonal signals (e.g., spring-only vs. spring–autumn) or underlie different deposition patterns, e.g., one species living mostly under the ice and another inside the ice.

The differences in the proxy records and lack of correlation, especially in regard to sea ice proxies, may be due to different seasons and annual time intervals reflected in each proxy. The relatively short sea ice season observed over the past 2.2 kyr in Disko Bugt area may cause our new biomarker record to reflect the rather short (peak winter/spring) annual time period. Microfossils, such as dinoflagellates, diatoms, and foraminifera, however, may represent a longer period (spring–early summer/autumn).

Besides ecological factors, issues such as selective and no uniform depositional and post-depositional degradation of biomarkers [10] and species-selective dissolution/preservation as well as under-representation of sea ice species affecting the diatom assemblages [68] have to be respected when comparing biomarkers, i.e., IP25, and diatoms.

Conclusions

Late Holocene sea ice conditions, open water phytoplankton productivity and terrigenous input in the southwest Disko Bugt area were reconstructed with a biomarker approach providing direct insights into sea ice variability and its driving mechanisms. Furthermore, a multiproxy comparison indicates different mechanisms behind phytoplankton and sea ice algae blooms and possibly different seasons reflected by different sea ice reconstructions.

We find that the Disko Bugt area was influenced by seasonal sea ice over the last 2.2 kyr BP. The overall sea ice trend indicates a development from a reduced sea ice cover during early spring, with sea ice algae productivity hampered by light availability to a gradual extend of the sea ice season from 1.2 kyr BP onwards. This change in sea ice extend is parallel to decreasing Northern Hemisphere atmospheric temperatures and culminates in the Little Ice Age around 0.2 kyr. We assume that modern conditions, with sea ice present until late spring and the presence of a stable ice edge at Disko Bugt, established around that time. A strong persistent Baffin Island Current and East Greenland Current may have contributed to this gradual increase in ‘Westice’ extent during the last 2.2 kyr BP.

The general trend in sea ice extent at the entrance of Disko Bugt, seems to follow the global the longer term atmospheric cooling trend in the Northern Hemisphere associated to decreasing solar insolation. Superimposed on longer term trends, phytoplankton productivity and terrigenous input show a strong short-term multidecadal periodicity at 63–90 years, indicating a rapid response to water mass properties such as salinity, and temperature. The observed cyclicity seems to be connected to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and to solar activity.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support for this study was provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through ‘ArcTrain’ (GRK 1904). We wish to thank the captain, crew and science party of the R/V Maria S. Merian expedition MSM 05/03. We would like to thank Walter Luttmer for laboratory support. Thanks to Simon Belt and colleagues (Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth) for providing the internal standard for IP25 analysis. Kerstin Perner has been funded through the DFG Grant PE2071/2–2. We thank two anonymous reviewers for the comments, which clearly led to an improved version of the original manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

41063_2018_45_MOESM1_ESM.tif (8 mb)
Supplementary Fig S1 Satellite measured monthly sea ice concentrations in Baffin Bay from 1978-2015 (Cavalieri et al., 1996; updated 2015). The white diamond indicates the position of Core 343310. (TIF 8239 KB)
41063_2018_45_MOESM2_ESM.tif (8.3 mb)
Supplementary Fig S2: Age depth model for (a) gravity core 343310-5-1 based on Perner et al. (2011). And (b) multi core 343310-2-2 based on Llyod et al. (2011). (TIF 8512 KB)
41063_2018_45_MOESM3_ESM.tif (6.7 mb)
Supplementary Fig S3 Biomarker concentrations (a) campesterol+ß-sitosterol, (b) dinosterol, (c) brassicasterol, (d) HBI III, (e) HBI II, (f) IP25 (all in µg/g sediment) and total organic carbon content (TOC; in %) of Core 343310 against depth (cm). (TIF 6825 KB)
41063_2018_45_MOESM4_ESM.tif (1.7 mb)
Supplementary Fig S4 Comparison of the indices PIIIIP25, PBIP25 and PDIP25 (red line) from Core 343310. PBIP25 and PDIP25 showing nearly identical values. (TIF 1718 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Andrews JT, Belt ST, Olafsdottir S, Massé G, Vare LL (2009) Sea ice and marine climate variability for NW Iceland/Denmark Strait over the last 2000 cal. yr BP. Holocene 19:775–784.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683609105302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allan E, Vernal A, Knudsen MF, Hillaire-Marcel C, Moros M, Ribeiro S, Ouellet-Bernier M, Seidenkrantz M (2018) Late Holocene sea-surface instabilities in the Disko Bugt area, west Greenland, in phase with δ18O-oscillations at Camp Century. Paleoceanogr Paleoclimatology 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017PA003289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alonso-Garcia M, Andrews JT, Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P, Darby D, Jaeger J (2013) A comparison between multiproxy and historical data (AD 1990–1840) of drift ice conditions on the East Greenland shelf (~ 66°N). Holocene 23:1672–1683.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683613505343 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersen OGN (1981) The annual cycle of temperature, salinity, currents and water masses in Disko Bugt and adjacent waters, West Greenland. Comm Sci Res Greenl 5:33Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barrick RC, Hedges JI, Peterson ML (1980) Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region—I. Sedimentary acyclic hydrocarbons. Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 44:1349–1362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(80)90094-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belt ST, Allard WG, Massé G, Robert JM, Rowland SJ (2000) Highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs): Identification of the most common and abundant sedimentary isomers. Geochim Cosmochim Acta.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(00)00464-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belt ST, Brown TA, Smik L, Tatarek A, Wiktor J, Stowasser G, Husum K (2017) Identification of C25 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes in diatoms of the genus Rhizosolenia in polar and sub-polar marine phytoplankton. Org Geochem 110:65–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2017.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P, Smik L, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Berben SMP, Knies J, Husum K (2015) Identification of paleo Arctic winter sea ice limits and the marginal ice zone: optimised biomarker-based reconstructions of late Quaternary Arctic sea ice. Earth Planet Sci Lett 431:127–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2015.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Belt ST, Massé G, Rowland SJ, Poulin M, Michel C, LeBlanc B (2007) A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25. Org Geochem 38(1):16–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Belt ST, Müller J (2013) The Arctic sea ice biomarker IP25: a review of current understanding, recommendations for future research and applications in palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Belt ST, Vare LL, Massé G, Manners HR, Price JC, MacLachlan SE, Schmidt S (2010) Striking similarities in temporal changes to spring sea ice occurrence across the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago over the last 7000 years. Quat Sci Rev 29(25–26):3489–3504.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berben SMP, Husum K, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Belt ST, Aagaard-Sørensen S (2017) Semi-quantitative reconstruction of early to late Holocene spring and summer sea ice conditions in the northern Barents Sea. J Quat Sci 32:587–603.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2953 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berben SMP, Husum K, Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST (2014) Holocene sub-centennial evolution of Atlantic water inflow and sea ice distribution in the western Barents Sea. Clim Past 10:181–198.  https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-10-181-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bianchi TS (2007) Biogeochemistry of estuaries. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blumer M, Guillard RRL, Chase T (1971) Hydrocarbons of marine phytoplankton. Mar Biol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00355214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boertmann D, Mosbech A, Schiedek D, Dünweber M (2013), Disko West. A strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities, Aarhus University, DCE—Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, pp. 306, Scientific Report from DCE—Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 71Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bronk-Ramsey C (2009). Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon.  https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.v51i1.3494 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown TA, Belt ST, Tatarek A, Mundy CJ (2014) Source identification of the Arctic sea ice proxy IP25. Nat Commun 5:4197.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buch E, Pedersen SA, Ribergaard MH (2004) Ecosystem variability in West Greenland Waters. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 34:13–28.  https://doi.org/10.2960/J.v34.m479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buch E (2000). Air-sea-ice conditions off southwest Greenland, 1981-97. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci.  https://doi.org/10.2960/J.v26.a6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST, Jennings AE, Andrews JT, Geirsdóttir Á (2016) Variability in drift ice export from the Arctic Ocean to the North Icelandic Shelf over the last 8000 years: A multi-proxy evaluation. Quat Sci Rev 146:99–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST (2016) Seasonal sea ice variability in eastern Fram Strait over the last 2000 years. Arktos 2:22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41063-016-0023-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST, Knies J, Husum K (2013) Identification of contrasting seasonal sea ice conditions during the Younger Dryas. Quat Sci Rev 79:74–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.10.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cavalieri DJ, Parkinson CL, Gloersen P, Zwally HJ (1996). Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1. updated yearly; accessed August 2017. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, accessed A. https://doi.org/10.5067/8GQ8LZQVL0VLGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cavalieri DJ, Gloersen P, Parkinson CL, Comiso JC, Zwally HJ (1997). Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science 278(5340), 1104–1106. from http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/278/5340/1104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clotten C, Stein R, Fahl K, De Schepper S (2018) Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Earth Planet Sci Lett 481:61–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cormier MA, Rochon A, de Vernal A, Gélinas Y (2016) Multi-proxy study of primary production and paleoceanographical conditions in northern Baffin Bay during the last centuries. Mar Micropaleontol 127:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2016.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Darby DA, Andrews JT, Belt ST, Jennings AE, Cabedo-Sanz P (2017) Holocene cyclic records of ice-rafted debris and sea ice variations on the East Greenland and Northwest Iceland Margins. Arctic, Antarct. Alp Res 49:649–672.  https://doi.org/10.1657/AAAR0017-008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Leeuw JW, Rijpstra WIC, Schenck PA, Volkman JK (1983). Free, esterified and residual bound sterols in Black Sea Unit I sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(83)90268-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Erbs-Hansen DR, Knudsen KL, Olsen J, Lykke-Andersen H, Underbjerg JA, Sha L (2013). Paleoceanographical development off Sisimiut, West Greenland, during the mid- and late Holocene: A multiproxy study. Mar Micropaleontol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fahl K, Stein R (1997). Modern organic carbon deposition in the Laptev Sea and the adjacent continental slope: Surface water productivity vs. terrigenous input. Org Geochem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(97)00007-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fahl K, Stein R (1999) Biomarkers as organic-carbon-source and environmental indicators in the late quaternary Arctic Ocean: problems and perspectives. Mar Chem 63(3–4):293–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(98)00068-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fahl K, Stein R (2007). Biomarker records, organic carbon accumulation, and river discharge in the Holocene southern Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean). Geo-Mar Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-006-0049-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fahl K, Stein R (2012) Modern seasonal variability and deglacial/Holocene change of central Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover: new insights from biomarker proxy records. Earth Planet Sci Lett 351–352:123–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Faust JC, Fabian K, Milzer G, Giraudeau J, Knies J (2016) Norwegian fjord sediments reveal NAO related winter temperature and precipitation changes of the past 2800 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 435:84–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2015.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hansen MO, Nielsen TG, Stedmon CA, Munk P (2012) Oceanographic regime shift during 1997 in Disko Bay, Western Greenland. Limnol Oceanogr 57:634–644.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2012.57.2.0634 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harff J, Dietrich R, Endler R, Hentzsch B, Jensen JB, Krauss KA, Leipe N, Lloyd T, Mikkelsen J, Perner NM,M, Richter K, Risgaard-Petersen A, Rysgaard N, Richter S, Sandgren T, Sheshenko P, Snowball V, Waniek I, Weinrebe J, Witkowski WA (2007) Deglaciation history, Coastal Development, and environmental change during the Holocene in western Merian’, Greenland. Cruise report MSM 05/03 R/V “Maria S. Merian.” Baltic Sea Research Institute, RostockGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    He D, Simoneit BRT, Xu Y, Jaffé R (2016) Occurrence of unsaturated C25 highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) in a freshwater wetland. Org Geochem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hoff U, Rasmussen TL, Stein R, Ezat ME, Fahl K (2016) Sea ice and millennial-scale climate variability in the Nordic seas 90 kyr ago to present. Nat Commun 7:12247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Holland DM, Thomas RH, de Young B, Ribergaard MH, Lyberth B (2008) Acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbræ triggered by warm subsurface ocean waters. Nat Geosci.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Holland, M., Bitz, C., Eby, M., Weaver, A. (2001). The role of Ice-Ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J Clim 14, 656–675.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0656:TROIOI>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Horner R, Schrader GC (1982) Relative contributions of ice algae, phytoplankton, and benthic microalgae to primary production in nearshore regions of the Beaufort Sea. Arctic 35(4):485–503.  https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic2356 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hörner T, Stein R, Fahl K (2017) Evidence for Holocene centennial variability in sea ice cover based on IP25 biomarker reconstruction in the southern Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean). Geo-Mar Lett 7:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-017-0501-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hörner T, Stein R, Fahl K, Birgel D (2016) Post-glacial variability of sea ice cover, river run-off and biological production in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean)—a high-resolution biomarker study. Quat Sci Rev 143:133–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Huang WY, Meinschein WG (1979) Sterols as ecological indicators. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43(5):739–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jaffé R, Wolff GA, Cabrera A, Chitty C, H (1995) The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin. Geochim Cosmochim Acta.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(95)00246-V CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jakobsson M, Macnab R, Mayer L, Anderson R, Edwards M, Hatzky J, Schenke HW, Johnson P (2008) An improved bathymetric portrayal of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for ocean modeling and geological, geophysical and oceanographic analyses. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jennings AE, Andrews JT, Cofaigh Ó, Onge C, Sheldon GS, Belt C, Cabedo-Sanz ST, Hillaire-Marcel P, C (2017) Ocean forcing of Ice Sheet retreat in central west Greenland from LGM to the early Holocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 472:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jennings AE, Knudsen KL, Hald M, Hansen V, Andrews JT, Hansen CV, Andrews JT (2002) A mid-Holocene shift in Arctic sea-ice variability on the East Greenland Shelf. Holocene 12(1):49–58.  https://doi.org/10.1191/0959683602hl519rp CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jensen KG, Kuijpers A, Koç N, Heinemeier J (2004) Diatom evidence of hydrographic changes and ice conditions in Igaliku Fjord, South Greenland, during the past 1500 years. Holocene 14(2):152–164.  https://doi.org/10.1191/0959683604hl698rp CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jensen LM, Christensen TR (2014). Nuuk Ecological Research Operations. In: 7 th Annual Report. Aarhus University, DCE—Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, p 94Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jiang H, Eiríksson J, Schulz M, Knudsen KL, Seidenkrantz MS (2005) Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic Shelf during the late Holocene. Geology 33(1):73–76.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G21130.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Johns L, Wraige EJ, Belt ST, Lewis CA, Massé G, Robert JM, Rowland SJ (1999) Identification of a C25 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) diene in Antarctic sediments, Antarctic sea-ice diatoms and cultured diatoms. Org Geochem 30:1471–1475.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(99)00112-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Juul-Pedersen T, Arendt KE, Mortensen J, Krawczyk D, Rysgaard S, Retzel A (2014), Nuuk Basic: The MarineBasis programme, in Nuuk Ecological Research Operations, 7th Annual Report, 2013, edited by L. MGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Keigwin LD, Sachs JP, Rosentahl. Y (2003) A 1600-year history of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia. Clim Dyn 21, 53–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-003-0316-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Knudsen MF, Seidenkrantz M-S, Jacobsen BH, Kuijpers A (2011) Tracking the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation through the last 8,000 years. Nat Commun 2:178.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1186 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Knies J, Pathirana I, Banica PCA (2017). Sea-ice dynamics in an Arctic coastal polynya during the past 6500 years. Arktos.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41063-016-0027-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kobashi T, Menviel L, Jeltsch-Thömmes A, Vinther BM, Box JE, Muscheler R, Ohmura A (2017) Volcanic influence on centennial to millennial Holocene Greenland temperature change. Sci Rep 7(1):1441.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01451-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kolling HM, Stein R, Fahl K, Perner K, Moros M (2017) Short-term variability in late Holocene sea ice cover on the East Greenland Shelf and its driving mechanisms. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 485:336–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.06.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Krawczyk DW, Witkowski A, Lloyd J, Moros M, Harff J, Kuijpers A (2013) Late-Holocene diatom derived seasonal variability in hydrological conditions off Disko Bay, West Greenland. Quat Sci Rev 67:93–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Krawczyk DW, Witkowski A, Moros M, Lloyd JM, Høyer JL, Miettinen A, Kuijpers A (2017) Quantitative reconstruction of Holocene sea ice and sea surface temperature off West Greenland from the first regional diatom data set. Paleoceanography 32(1):18–40.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016PA003003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Krawczyk DW, Witkowski A, Wroniecki M, Waniek J, Kurzydłowski KJ, Płociński T (2012). Reinterpretation of two diatom species from the West Greenland margin—Thalassiosira kushirensis and Thalassiosira antarctica var. borealis—hydrological consequences. Mar Micropaleontol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2012.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krawczyk D, Witkowski A, Moros M, Lloyd J, Kuijpers A, Kierzek A (2010). Late-Holocene diatom-inferred reconstruction of temperature variations of the West Greenland Current from Disko Bugt, central West Greenland. Holocene.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683610371993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kremer A, Stein R, Fahl K, Ji Z, Yang Z, Wiers S, Matthiessen J, Forwick M, Löwemark L, O’Regan M, Chen J, Snowball I (2018) Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka—reconstructions from biomarker records. Quat Sci Rev 182:93–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lamb HH (1977) Climate: present, past and future. Vol 2. Methuen and Co. Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lamb HH (1965) The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 1:13–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Larsen NK, Kjær KH, Lecavalier B, Bjørk AA, Colding S, Huybrechts P, Olsen J (2015). The response of the southern Greenland ice sheet to the Holocene thermal maximum. Geology.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G36476.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leventer A (1998). The fate of Antarctic “sea ice diatoms” and their use as paleoenvironmental indicators. Antarct Sea Ice Biol Process Interact Var Antarct Res Ser.  https://doi.org/10.1029/AR073p0121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Levy LB, Larsen NK, Davidson TA, Strunk A, Olsen J, Jeppesen E (2017) Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland. J Quat Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2957 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ljungqvist FC (2010) A new reconstruction of temperature variability in the extra tropical Northern Hemisphere during the last two millennia. Geogr Annal Ser A Phys Geogr 92(3):339–351.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0459.2010.00399.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lloyd J, Moros M, Perner K, Telford RJ, Kuijpers A, Jansen E, McCarthy D (2011) A 100 year record of ocean temperature control on the stability of Jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. Geology 39(9):867–870.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G32076.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Massé G, Belt ST, Crosta X, Schmidt S, Snape I, Thomas DN, Rowland SJ (2011) Highly branched isoprenoids as proxies for variable sea ice conditions in the Southern Ocean. Antarct Sci 23(5):487–498.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102011000381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Massé G, Rowland SJ, Sicre MA, Jacob J, Jansen E, Belt ST (2008) Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269(3–4):564–568.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Méheust M, Stein R, Fahl K, Max L, Riethdorf JR (2016) High-resolution IP25-based reconstruction of sea-ice variability in the western North Pacific and Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years. Geo-Mar Lett 36:101–111.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-015-0432-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Meyers PA (1997) Organic geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic, paleolimnologic, and paleoclimatic processes. Org Geochem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(97)00049-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Miller GH, Geirsdóttir Á, Zhong Y, Larsen DJ, Otto-Bliesner BL, Holland MM, Thordarson T (2012) Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks. Geophys Res Lett 39(2):1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Moros M, Jensen K, Kuijpers G, A (2006) Mid- to late-Holocene hydrological and climatic variability in Disko Bugt, central West Greenland. Holocene 3:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Moros M, Andrews JT, Eberl DD, Jansen E (2006) Holocene history of drift ice in the northern North Atlantic: evidence for different spatial and temporal modes. Paleoceanography 21(2):1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moros M, Jansen E, Oppo DW, Giraudeau J, Kuijpers A (2012). Reconstruction of the late-Holocene changes in the Sub-Arctic Front position at the Reykjanes Ridge,north Atlantic. Holocene 22(8):877–886. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84863557938&partnerID=40&md5=75bf62fce6e5b761b6b2f5a2fa104ec5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moros M, Lloyd JM, Perner K, Krawczyk D, Blanz T, de Vernal A, Jansen E (2016) Surface and sub-surface multi-proxy reconstruction of middle to late Holocene palaeoceanographic changes in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Quat Sci Rev 132:146–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Müller J, Massé G, Stein R, Belt ST (2009) Variability of sea-ice conditions in the Fram Strait over the past 30,000 years. Nat Geosci 2(11):772–776.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo665 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Müller J, Stein R (2014) High-resolution record of late glacial and deglacial sea ice changes in Fram Strait corroborates ice-ocean interactions during abrupt climate shifts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 403:446–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Müller J, Wagner A, Fahl K, Stein R, Prange M, Lohmann G (2011) Towards quantitative sea ice reconstructions in the northern North Atlantic: a combined biomarker and numerical modelling approach. Earth Planet Sci Lett 306(3–4):137–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Müller J, Werner K, Stein R, Fahl K, Moros M, Jansen E (2012) Holocene cooling culminates in sea ice oscillations in Fram Strait. Quat Sci Rev 47:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Navarro-Rodriguez A, Belt ST, Knies J, Brown TA (2013) Mapping recent sea ice conditions in the Barents Sea using the proxy biomarker IP25: Implications for palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev 79:26–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.11.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nichols PD, Jones GJ, De Leeuw JW, Johns RBB (1984). The fatty acid and sterol composition of two marine dinoflagellates. Phytochemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)82605-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nielsen N, Humlum O, Hansen BU (2001) Meteorological Observations in 2000 at the Arctic Station, Qeqertarsuaq (69°15′N), Central West Greenland. Dan J Geogr.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00167223.2001.10649458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nørgaard-Pedersen N, Mikkelsen N (2009) 8000 year marine record of climate variability and fjord dynamics from Southern Greenland. Mar Geol 264(3–4):177–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2009.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    NSIDC, Boulder. http://nsidc.org/ (accessed August 2017)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Olsen J, Anderson NJ, Knudsen MF (2012) Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the past 5,200 years. Nat Geosci 5(11):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ortega P, Lehner F, Swingedouw D, Masson-Delmotte V, Raible CC, Casado M, Yiou P (2015) A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium. Nature 523(7558):71–74.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ouellet-Bernier MM, de Vernal A, Hillaire-Marcel C, Moros M (2014) Paleoceanographic changes in the Disko Bugt area, West Greenland, during the Holocene. Holocene 24(11):1573–1583.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683614544060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Paillard D, Labeyrie L, Yiou P (1996) Macintosh program performs time-series analysis. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 77(39):379.  https://doi.org/10.1029/96EO00259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pearce C, Seidenkrantz MS, Kuijpers A, Reynisson NF (2014) A multi-proxy reconstruction of oceanographic conditions around the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition in Placentia Bay. Nfld Mar Micropaleontol 112:39–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2014.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Perner K, Moros M, Jansen E, Kuijpers A, Troelstra SR, Prins MA (2018)Subarctic Front migration at the Reykjanes Ridge during the mid- to late Holocene:evidence from planktic foraminifera. Boreas.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bor.12263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Perner K, Jennings AE, Moros M, Andrews JT, Wacker L (2016) Interaction between warm Atlantic-sourced waters and the East Greenland Current in northern Denmark Strait (68°N) during the last 10 600 cal a BP. J Quat Sci 31:472–483.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2872 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Perner K, Moros M, Jennings AE, Lloyd JM, Knudsen KL (2013) Holocene palaeoceanographic evolution off West Greenland. Holocene 23(3):374–387.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683612460785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Perner K, Moros M, Lloyd JM, Kuijpers A, Telford RJ, Harff J (2011) Centennial scale benthic foraminiferal record of late Holocene oceanographic variability in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Quat Sci Rev 30(19–20):2815–2826.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.06.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pieńkowski AJ, Gill NK, Furze MFA, Mugo SM, Marret F, Perreaux A (2017) Arctic sea-ice proxies: comparisons between biogeochemical and micropalaeontological reconstructions in a sediment archive from Arctic Canada. Holocene 27:665–682.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683616670466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Polyak L, Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P, Yamamoto M, Park YH (2016) Holocene sea-ice conditions and circulation at the Chukchi-Alaskan margin, Arctic Ocean, inferred from biomarker proxies. Holocene 26:1810–1821.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683616645939 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Prahl FG, Muehlhausen LA (1989) Lipid biomarkers as geochemical tools for paleoceanographic study. Prod Ocean Present Past 27:1–289Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rampen SW, Abbas BA, Schouten S, Damsté JSS (2010) A comprehensive study of sterols in marine diatoms (Bacillariophyta): Implications for their use as tracers for diatom productivity. Limnol Oceanogr 55:91–105.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Reimer PJ, Baillie MGL, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Weyhenmeyer CE (2009) INTCAL 09 and MARINE09 aadiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years Cal BP. Radiocarbon.  https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.51.3569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ribeiro S, Sejr MK, Limoges A, Heikkilä M, Andersen TJ, Tallberg P, Weckström K, Husum K, Forwick M, Dalsgaard T, Massé G, Seidenkrantz MS, Rysgaard S (2017) Sea ice and primary production proxies in surface sediments from a High Arctic Greenland fjord: spatial distribution and implications for palaeoenvironmental studies. Ambio 46:106–118.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0894-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ribeiro S, Moros M, Ellegaard M, Kuijpers A (2012) Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years: evidence from a high-resolution marine palynological record from Disko Bay. Boreas 41(1):68–83.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00216.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ribergaard MH, Kliem N, Jespersen M (2006) HYCOM for the North Atlantic Ocean with Special Emphasis onWest GreenlandWater. Technical Report 06 – 0. http://www.dmi.dk/dmi/tr06-07
  107. 107.
    Richerol T, Fréchette B, Rochon A, Pienitz R (2016) Holocene climate history of the Nunatsiavut (northern Labrador, Canada) established from pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages covering the past 7000 years. Holocene 26:44–60.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683615596823 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rignot E, Koppes M, Velicogna I (2010) Rapid submarine melting of the calving faces of West Greenland glaciers. Nat Geosci.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo765 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Risebrobakken B (2003). A high-resolution study of Holocene paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic changes in the Nordic Seas. Paleoceanography 18(1):1017. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2003/2002PA000764.shtml CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Roncaglia L, Kuijpers A (2004). Palynofacies analysis and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in late-Holocene sediments from Igaliku Fjord, South Greenland. Holocene.  https://doi.org/10.1191/0959683604hl700rp CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rontani JF, Charrière B, Sempéré R, Doxaran D, Vaultier F, Vonk JE, Volkman JK (2014) Degradation of sterols and terrigenous organic matter in waters of the Mackenzie Shelf, Canadian Arctic. Org Geochem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rowland SJ, Allard WG, Belt ST, Massé G, Robert JM, Blackburn S, Volkman JK (2001) Factors influencing the distributions of polyunsaturated terpenoids in the diatom, Rhizosolenia setigera. Phytochemistry 58(5):717–728.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00318-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ruan J, Huang Y, Shi X, Liu Y, Xiao W, Xu Y (2017) Holocene variability in sea surface temperature and sea ice extent in the northern Bering Sea: a multiple biomarker study. Org Geochem 113:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2017.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ruzmaikin A, Feynman J, Jiang X, Noone DC, Waple AM, Yung YL (2004) The pattern of northern hemisphere surface air temperature during prolonged periods of low solar output. Geophys Res Lett 31(12):2–5.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schmith T, Hansen C (2003) Fram strait ice export during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries reconstructed from a multiyear sea ice index from southwestern Greenland. J Clim 16(16):2782–2791.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2782:FSIEDT>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schweinsberg AD, Briner JP, Miller GH, Bennike O, Thomas EK (2017) Local glaciation in West Greenland linked to North Atlantic ocean circulation during the Holocene. Geology 45(3):195–198.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G38114.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Seidenkrantz MS, Roncaglia L, Fischel A, Heilmann-Clausen C, Kuijpers A, Moros M (2008) Variable North Atlantic climate seesaw patterns documented by a late Holocene marine record from Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Mar Micropaleontol 68(1–2):66–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2008.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Serreze MC, Barry RG (2011) Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: a research synthesis. Global Planet Change 77(1–2):85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sha L, Jiang H, Knudsen KL (2012) Diatom evidence of climatic change in Holsteinsborg Dyb, west of Greenland, during the last 1200 years. Holocene 22(3):347–358.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683611423684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sha L, Jiang H, Seidenkrantz MS, Li D, Andresen CS, Knudsen KL, Zhao M (2017) A record of Holocene sea-ice variability off West Greenland and its potential forcing factors. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 475:115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.03.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sha L, Jiang H, Seidenkrantz MS, Muscheler R, Zhang X, Knudsen MF, Zhang W (2016) Solar forcing as an important trigger for West Greenland sea-ice variability over the last millennium. Quat Sci Rev 131:148–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sha L, Jiang H, Seidenkrantz MS, Knudsen KL, Olsen J, Kuijpers A, Liu Y (2014) A diatom-based sea-ice reconstruction for the Vaigat Strait (Disko Bugt, West Greenland) over the last 5000 year. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 403:66–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.03.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sicre MA, Jacob J, Ezat U, Rousse S, Kissel C, Yiou P, Turon JL (2008) Decadal variability of sea surface temperatures off North Iceland over the last 2000 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 268(1–2):137–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sigl M, Winstrup M, McConnell JR, Welten KC, Plunkett G, Ludlow F, Woodruff TE (2015) Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2500 years. Nature.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Smik L, Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST (2016) Semi-quantitative estimates of paleo Arctic sea ice concentration based on source-specific highly branched isoprenoid alkenes: a further development of the PIP25 index. Org Geochem 92:63–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2015.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Solignac S, De Vernal A, Hillaire-Marcel C (2004) Holocene sea-surface conditions in the North Atlantic - Contrasted trends and regimes in the western and eastern sectors (Labrador Sea vs. Iceland Basin). Quat Sci Rev 23(3–4):319–334.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Stein R, Macdonald RW (2004) Geochemical Proxies Used for Organic Carbon Source Identification in Arctic Ocean Sediments. In: Stein R, Macdonald RW (eds) The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Stein R, Fahl K (2013) Biomarker proxy shows potential for studying the entire Quaternary Arctic sea ice history. Org Geochem 55:98–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stein R, Fahl K (2012) A first southern Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic Ocean) 60 ka IP25 sea-ice record. Polarforschung 82:83–86Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Stein R, Fahl K, Müller J (2012) Proxy reconstruction of Cenozoic Arctic Ocean sea-ice history—from IRD to IP25-. Polarforschung 82(1):37–71Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stein R, Fahl K, Gierz P, Niessen F, Lohmann G (2017) Arctic Ocean sea ice cover during the penultimate glacial and the last interglacial. Nat Commun 8:373.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00552-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stein R, Fahl K, Schade I, Manerung A, Wassmuth S, Niessen F, Nam S, Il (2017) Holocene variability in sea ice cover, primary production, and Pacific-Water inflow and climate change in the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas (Arctic Ocean). J Quat Sci 32:362–379.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2929 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stein R, Fahl K, Schreck M, Knorr G, Niessen F, Forwick M, Lohmann G (2016). Evidence for ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean. Nat Commun, 7:11148. http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160404/ncomms11148/full/ncomms11148.html CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stroeve JC, Serreze MC, Holland MM, Kay JE, Malanik J, Barrett AP (2012) The Arctic’s rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: a research synthesis. Clim Change.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0101-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Summons RE, Capon RJ, Stranger C, Barrow RA (1993) The structure of a new C25 isoprenoid alkene biomarker from diatomaceous microbial communities. Aust J Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1071/CH9930907 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tang CCL, Ross CK, Yao T, Petrie B, DeTracey BM, Dunlap E (2004) The circulation, water masses and sea-ice of Baffin Bay. Prog Oceanogr 63(4):183–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2004.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Trouet V, Esper J, Graham NE, Baker A, Scourse JD, Frank DC (2009) Persistent positive North Atlantic oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science 324(5923):78–80.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1166349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Vare LL, Massé G, Gregory TR, Smart CW, Belt ST (2009) Sea ice variations in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the Holocene. Quat Sci Rev 28(13–14):1354–1366.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vare LL, Massé G, Belt ST (2010) A biomarker-based reconstruction of sea ice conditions for the Barents Sea in recent centuries. Holocene 20:637–643.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683609355179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Vinnikov KY, Robock A, Stouffer RJ, Walsh JE, Parkinson CL, Cavalieri DJ, Zakharov VF (1999) Global Warming and Northern Hemisphere Sea Ice Extent. Science.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5446.1934 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vinther BM, Clausen HB, Johnsen SJ, Rasmussen SO, Andersen KK, Buchardt SL, Heinemeier J (2006) A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene. J Geophys Res Atmos 111(13):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Volkman JK, Revill AT, Holdsworth DG, Fredericks D (2008) Organic matter sources in an enclosed coastal inlet assessed using lipid biomarkers and stable isotopes. Org Geochem.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.02.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Volkman JK (2003) Sterols in microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60:495–506.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-002-1172-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Volkman JK (1986) A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter. Org Geochem 9(2):83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Volkman JK, Barrett SM, Dunstan GA, Jeffrey SW (1993) Geochemical significance of the occurrence of dinosterol and other 4-methyl sterols in a marine diatom. Org Geochem 20(1):7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wassmann P, Duarte CM, Agustí S, Sejr MK (2011) Footprints of climate change in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Glob Chang Biol 17:1235–1249.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02311.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Weidick A, Bennike O, Grafisk S (2007) Quaternary glaciation history and glaciology of Jakobshavn Isbrae and the Disko Bugt region, West Greenland: a review. Geol Surv Den Greenl Bull 14:26–49Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Werner K, Müller J, Husum K, Spielhagen RF, Kandiano ES, Polyak L (2015) Holocene sea subsurface and surface water masses in the Fram Strait—comparisons of temperature and sea-ice reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Xiao X, Zhao M, Luise K, Sha L, Eiríksson J, Gudmundsdóttir E, Jiang H, Guo Z (2017) Deglacial and Holocene sea–ice variability north of Iceland and response to ocean circulation changes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 472:14–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Xiao X, Fahl K, Stein R (2013) Biomarker distributions in surface sediments from the Kara and Laptev seas (Arctic Ocean): indicators for organic-carbon sources and sea-ice coverage. Quat Sci Rev 79:40–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.11.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Xiao X, Stein R, Fahl K (2015) MIS 3 to MIS 1 temporal and LGM spatial variability in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: reconstruction from biomarkers. Paleoceanography 30(7):969–983.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Xiao X, Fahl K, Müller J, Stein R (2015) Sea-ice distribution in the modern Arctic Ocean: biomarker records from trans-Arctic Ocean surface sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 155:16–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.01.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Young NE, Schweinsberg AD, Briner JP, Schaefer JM (2015) Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement. Sci Adv 1(11).  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500806 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Veltkamp DJ, Cretney WJ (1995) Terrestrial and marine biomarkers in a seasonally ice-covered Arctic estuary—integration of multivariate and biomarker approaches. Mar Chem 49(1):1–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(94)00057-K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Yruela I, Barbe A, Grimalt JO (1990) Determination of double bond position and geometry in linear and highly branched hydrocarbons and fatty acids from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of epoxides and diols generated by stereospecific resin hydration. J Chromatogr Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/28.8.421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henriette M. Kolling
    • 1
  • Ruediger Stein
    • 1
  • Kirsten Fahl
    • 1
  • Kerstin Perner
    • 2
  • Matthias Moros
    • 2
  1. 1.Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research WarnemuendeRostockGermany

Personalised recommendations