Beneficiated pozzolans as cement replacement in bamboo-reinforced concrete: the intrinsic characteristics

  • Shanmugam Karthik
  • Ram Mohan Rao
  • Paul AwoyeraEmail author
  • Isaac Akinwumi
  • Tani Karthikeyan
  • Appukutty Revathi
  • JothiBharathi Mathivanan
  • Velumani Manikandan
  • Subramaniyan Saravanan
Technical Note


The use of concrete containing supplementary cementitious materials has gained popularity as an eco-efficient and sustainable alternative to a number of concrete applications. In this study, beneficiated pozzolans, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and metakaolin (MK), were used as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in bamboo-reinforced concrete. In the mixtures, river sand and granite were used as fine and coarse aggregates, respectively. The compressive strength of concrete cubes, split-tensile strength of concrete cylinders, and flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams were determined after stipulated curing regimes. The morphology and mineralogy of bamboo and selected concrete mixtures were obtained using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The concrete samples having blended cement were found to have better compressive and split-tensile strength than those made with conventional binder. Also, the mechanical characteristics of the samples improved up to 40% GGBS substitution. However, steel-reinforced concrete developed better flexural strength than the bamboo-reinforced concrete (BRC). The study recommends pretreatment of bamboo to ensure its adequate bonding with the cement paste, so as to achieve optimum performance of BRC.


Bamboo reinforcement Metakaolin Steel reinforcement Steel slag Strength properties 



The authors would like to appreciate the Center for Disaster and Mitigation and Management, VIT University, India, for supporting this research. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful and valuable feedback that has improved this article.


  1. 1.
    Tüfekçi MM, Çakır Ö (2017) An investigation on mechanical and physical properties of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete with GGBFS. Int J Civ Eng 15:549–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Emmanuel EO, Oluwaseun AP (2016) Suitability of Cordia millenii ash blended cement in concrete production. Int J Eng Res Afr 22:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feng Q, Yamamichi H, Shoya M, Sugita S (2004) Study on the pozzolanic properties of rice husk ash by hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Cem Concr Res 34:521–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar S, Kumar R, Bandopadhyay A, Alex TC, Ravi KB, Das SK, Mehrotra SP (2008) Mechanical activation of granulated blast furnace slag and its effect on the properties and structure of Portland Slag Cement. Cem Concr Compos 30:679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mustafa M, Bakri A, Mohammed H, Kamarudin H, Niza IK, Zarina Y (2011) Review on fly sh-based geopolymer concrete without Portland Cement. J Eng Technol Res 3(1):1–4Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahmaruzzaman M (2010) A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prog Energy Combust Sci 32(3):327–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van VTA, Rößler C, Bui DD, Ludwig HM (2014) Rice husk ash as both pozzolanic admixture and internal curing agent in ultra-high performance concrete. Cem Concr Compos 53:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alves AV, Vieira TF, de Brito J, Correia JR (2014) Mechanical properties of structural concrete with fine recycled ceramic aggregates. Constr Build Mater 64:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Awoyera PO, Akinmusuru JO, Ndambuki JM (2016) Green concrete production with ceramic wastes and laterite. Constr Build Mater 117:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cabral AEB, Schalch V, Molin DCC, Ribeiro JLD (2010) Mechanical properties modeling of recycled aggregate concrete. Constr Build Mater 24:421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abu-Eishah SI, El-Dieb AS, Bedir MS (2012) Performance of concrete mixtures made with electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag aggregate produced in the Arabian Gulf region. Constr Build Mater 34:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maslehuddin M, Sharif AM, Shameem M, Ibrahim M, Barry M (2003) Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes. Constr Build Mater 17:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Awoyera PO, Adekeye AW, Babalola OE (2015) Influence of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag aggregate sizes on the workability and durability of concrete. Int J Eng Technol 7:1049–1056Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agarwal A, Nanda B, Maity D (2014) Experimental investigation on chemically treated bamboo reinforced concrete beams and columns. Constr Build Mater 71:610–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Awoyera PO, Ijalana JK, Babalola OE (2015) Influence of steel and bamboo fibres on mechanical properties of high strength concrete. J Mater Environ Sci 6:3634–3642Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zakikhani P, Zahari R, Sultan MTH, Majid DL (2014) Extraction and preparation of bamboo fibre-reinforced composites. Mater Des 63:820–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Awoyera PO, Ede AN (2017) Bamboo versus tubular steel scaffolding in construction: pros and cons. In: Hashmi S (ed) Reference module in materials science and materials engineering. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huang D, Bian Y, Zhou A, Sheng B (2015) Experimental study on stress–strain relationships and failure mechanisms of parallel strand bamboo made from phyllostachys. Constr Build Mater 77:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abdul Khalil HPS, Bhat IUH, Jawaid M, Zaidon A, Hermawan D, Hadi YS (2012) Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: a review. Mater Des 42:353–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hebel DE, Javadian A, Heisel F, Schlesier K, Griebel D, Wielopolski M (2014) Process-controlled optimization of the tensile strength of bamboo fiber composites for structural applications. Compos B Eng 67:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adewuyi AP, Otukoya AA, Olaniyi OA (2015) Comparative studies of steel, bamboo and rattan as reinforcing bars in concrete: tensile and flexural characteristics. Open J Civ Eng 5:228–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ghavami K (2005) Bamboo as reinforcement in structural concrete elements. Cem Concr Compos 27:637–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gupta AK, Ganguly R (2015) Bamboo as green alternative to steel for reinforced concrete elements of a low cost residential building. Electron J Geotech Eng 20:1523–1545Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Terai M, Minami K (2011) Fracture behavior and mechanical properties of bamboo reinforced concrete members. Procedia Eng 10:2967–2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    BS 12 (1996) Specification for Portland Cement. British Standard Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    NIS 444 (2003) Standard for cement. Standard Organization of Nigeria, LagosGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    BS 882 (1992) Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. British Standard Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Awoyera PO, Adesina A (2017) Structural integrity assessment of bamboo for construction purposes. In: Hashmi S (ed) Reference module in materials science and materials engineering. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karthika S, Ram Mohan Rao P, Awoyera PO (2017) Strength properties of bamboo and steel reinforced concrete containing manufactured sand and mineral admixtures. J King Saud Univ Eng Sci 29:400–406Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jegatheesan A, Murugan J, Neelagantaprasad B, Rajarajan G (2012) FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA investigations of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) single crystal. Int J Comput Appl Technol 53:15–18Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khan MK, Ghani U (2004) Effect of blending of Portland cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag on the properties of concrete. In: Proceedings of the 29th conference on our world in concrete & structures, premier PTE LTD, Singapore, pp 329–334Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    AbdElaty MAA (2013) Compressive strength prediction of Portland cement concrete with age using a new model. HBRC J 10:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ikponmwosa E, Fapohunda C (2015) Structural behaviour of bamboo-reinforced foamed concrete slab containing polyvinyl wastes (PW) as partial replacement of fine aggregate. J King Saud Univ Eng Sci 29:348–355Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sarıdemir M, Severcan MH, Çiflikli M, Çelikten S (2016) Microstructural analyses of high strength concretes containing metakaolin at high temperatures. Int J Civ Eng 15:273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ghoddousi P, Adelzade L (2017) Pore Structure indicators of chloride transport in metakaolin and silica fume self-compacting concrete. Int J Civ Eng 155:965Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanmugam Karthik
    • 1
  • Ram Mohan Rao
    • 1
  • Paul Awoyera
    • 2
    Email author
  • Isaac Akinwumi
    • 2
  • Tani Karthikeyan
    • 1
  • Appukutty Revathi
    • 3
  • JothiBharathi Mathivanan
    • 3
  • Velumani Manikandan
    • 3
  • Subramaniyan Saravanan
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Disaster and Mitigation and ManagementVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  3. 3.Jay Shriram Group of InstitutionsTirupurIndia

Personalised recommendations